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孟子和他的學生匡章

時間:2018-05-25來源:歷史故事網 作者:
  孟子有一次和他的學生匡章一起談論什么人可以稱作廉潔之士。
  
  匡章問孟子道:“陳仲子住在于陵,連續三天沒有吃東西,也不向人討要,以至于他耳朵失聰,眼睛也看不見東西了。后來他在井邊拿到一個被金龜子吃了大半的李子來吃了,耳朵才開始恢復聽覺,眼睛才能看見東西。他應該算是廉潔的人吧?”
  
  孟子聽后,搖搖頭說:“在齊國的士人中,我是很欣賞陳仲子的。但我不贊同他是廉潔之士的觀點,如果要推廣陳仲子的作為,只有把所有人都變成蚯蚓后才能辦到。”
  
  “蚯蚓在地面上便吃干土,在地面下就喝泉水,這才是無求于人,廉潔之至。而陳仲子能做得到嗎?”
  
  “他所住的房子,是像伯夷那樣廉潔的人所建筑的呢?還是像盜跖那樣的強盜所建筑的呢?他所吃的谷米,是像伯夷那樣廉潔的人所種植的呢?還是像盜跖那樣的強盜所種植的呢?這個連他自己都不知道,怎么能說他的廉潔可以稱道呢。”
  
  匡章聽了老師的一番議論,很不服氣地說:“那又有什么關系呢?這些都是他親自編織草蒲團同別人交換來的,自力更生有什么不好的呢?”
  
  孟子說道:“在齊國,陳仲子是宗族大家,享有世代相傳的祿田。他哥哥陳載,從邑收入的俸祿就有幾萬石之多,可他卻以為哥哥的俸祿是貪來之物,不去吃它;認為哥哥的房屋是不祥之物,不去居住。他逃避父母、哥哥,一個人住在于陵。
  
  “有一天他回到家里,正巧有個人送給他哥哥一只大鵝,他皺著眉頭說:‘要這種呃呃叫的東西有什么用呢?’他哥哥聽了自然不高興。過了幾天,他母親把鵝殺了燉了,拿給他吃。這時他哥哥從外面來,見他在吃鵝肉,就說:‘你不是說這呃呃叫的東西沒用嗎?你怎么還吃它呢?’陳仲子聽了,知道吃的是鵝肉,忙跑出門,在外面嘔吐起來,”
  
  說到這兒,孟子看著匡章,見他仍是一副不以為然的樣子,又說:“母親的食物不吃,卻吃妻子的;哥哥的房子不住,卻住在于陵,難道這是推廣廉潔之義到了頂點嗎?像陳仲子這樣的行為,如果一定要看成是廉潔,不把人變成蚯蚓是辦不到的。”
  
  匡章聽了慚愧地低下頭,不再說一句話。
  
  哲理點撥:真正的廉明之士是用德行教化別人,使清廉剛正的風氣得以發揚光大,而不是時時處處刻薄自己,那樣做只能叫迂腐。
Tags: 孟子 匡章
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