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孔子的五德四惡

時間:2018-05-25來源:歷史故事網 作者:
  孔子的弟子子張,他多次向孔子請教,同孔子探討政事問題。
  
  一天,子張又問孔子:“老師,怎樣才能使百姓安樂、國家興旺呢?”
  
  孔子直截了當地答道:“尊重五種美德,排除四種惡政,這就可以達到目的。”
  
  子張不解,于是又問道:“五種美德是什么,怎么我以前沒有聽說過?”
  
  孔子解釋說:“君子施給人民好處,而自己卻沒有什么耗費,使用百姓而百姓又不怨恨;自己欲仁欲義,卻不能叫做貪;安泰矜持卻不驕傲;威嚴卻不兇猛,這就是所謂的五德。”
  
  子張追根問底,繼續請教說:“施給人民好處,而自己卻沒有什么耗費,這聽起來可有點玄乎,怎樣做才能辦得到呢?”
  
  孔子耐心地教導他說:“就著人民能得利益之處而使他們得到好處,這不就是給人民以好處而自己卻沒有什么耗費嗎?選擇可以勞動的時間或情況再讓他們去勞動,以增加收成,又有誰來怨恨呢?自己需要仁德便得到了仁德,又貪求什么呢?
  
  “無論人多人少,無論勢大勢小,君子都一視同仁謙恭之至,不怠慢他們,這不也是安泰矜持卻不驕傲嗎?君子衣冠整齊,目不斜視,莊嚴地使人望而有所畏懼,這不就是威嚴卻不兇猛嗎?”
  
  子張徹底弄清了五種美德的含義。又問:“那四種惡政又是什么呢?”
  
  孔子回答說:“不加教育便加殺戮叫做虐;不加申誡便要成績叫做暴;起先懈怠,突然限期叫做賊;同是給人以財物,出手吝嗇,叫做小家子氣,這就是四惡。所以我說,誰要是擁有五種美德而排除四惡,誰就可以治理好天下,這也是我從歷代帝王興衰中總結的道理啊!”
  
  子張聽后,很佩服地點了點頭。
  
  哲理點撥:如果一個領導者能夠真正做到給百姓以恩惠,令萬民不怨憤,不貪仁義之名,安泰而威嚴,同時又不暴虐,不吝不惜,那么這就真是下屬的福氣了。
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