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鴉片戰爭前清軍對英海戰七戰七捷

時間:2016-09-17來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  自乾隆年間到鴉片戰爭爆發前后,大清王朝都在積極地推行閉關鎖國政策。清王朝夜郎自大地要閉關鎖國,但西方因為工業革命所生產出來的產品迫切希望銷往人口眾多的中國市場,于是中西之間展開了閉關與叩關的較量。到了道光朝,鴉片走私已成泛濫之勢。為減少白銀外流,道光帝不得不頒布禁煙令,讓林則徐主持禁煙。在林則徐雷厲風行的禁煙運動中,殖民者窮兇極惡地用堅船利炮摧毀了天朝“建夷夏之防”的國門。

  

鴉片戰爭前清軍對英海戰七戰七捷

  林則徐虎門銷煙給英國資產階級貿易集團造成了極大的沖擊,但他們不甘心失敗,一再發起武裝挑釁,并鼓動政府發動戰爭。

  

  林則徐認為,禁煙斗爭直接沖擊到外國人的利益,他們很可能因此而發生武裝挑釁。所以,林則徐作了認真的準備。他從外國購置了200尊大炮,加強虎門炮臺的防御,并積極整頓水師,發動廣東百姓積極參與防御,他將漁民壯丁每5000人編成水勇,為可能發生的戰爭作準備。

  

  1839年7月,一件突發事件的發生,使中英關系也很快上升到戰爭的臨界狀態。

  

  7月7日,英國水手在尖沙咀因醉酒鬧事,對該村村民進行毆打。在雙方的沖突中,村民林維喜被毆打致死。英國水手在中國的土地上肆意妄為,這還了得,聽說了這個消息的林則徐要求英國方面交出兇手,按中國法律治罪。

  

  義律拒絕了林則徐的要求,他表示可以出1500先令撫恤死者家屬,但中國政府無權審判英國人。他宣布,將在英國船只上設立一個法庭來審判兇犯,歡迎中國方面派員旁聽。這種侵犯中國司法主權的所謂“審判”遭到了林則徐和鄧廷楨的反對,但義律仍然一意孤行。8月12日,義律自作主張地作出判決:判決英國水手5人有罪,其中3人罰金20英鎊,監禁6個月;另外2人監禁3個月,罰金15英鎊;被判監禁的英國水手在英國人的監獄里執行。8月16日,義律將審判結果告訴了林則徐和鄧廷楨,對于林維喜的死,義律表示“未能查出行兇的兇犯”。

  

  義律對英國水手的所謂“審判”,完全彰顯了英帝國奉行的“治外法權”的霸道心態。對于義律這種不顧中國司法主權的惡行,林則徐作了針鋒相對的斗爭。他在接到義律關于英國水手的審判結果的稟帖之后,即正告義律:英國人在中國犯罪,理應由中國方面依照中國法律審判,這是關系到中國國體的大事。他要求義律立即交出殺人兇手,“若再抗違不交,是義律始終庇匿罪人,即與罪人同罪,本大臣、本部堂不能不執法與之從事矣”。

  

  對于林則徐的要求,義律仍然借故拖延,不作出答復。林則徐只好讓澳門同知蔣立昂敦促義律,不料蔣立昂卻被義律大罵了一通,并且義律還揚言要支持鴉片販子大賣鴉片。義律此舉是想把事情做絕,從而為武裝挑釁尋找借口。

  

  對義律的無賴行徑,忍無可忍的林則徐下令將英商驅逐出澳門,并不許他們到廣東通商。林則徐的這一舉動,雖然是在維護中國主權,但是他對驅逐英商可能造成的嚴重后果,卻沒有作充分的估計和判斷。雖然他到廣州禁煙之初,也曾經考慮到因為禁煙可能引發邊釁,并做了積極的準備,但是他的這種準備只適用于應對小規模的沖突。他雖然知道在禁煙的行動中義律多有阻撓破壞,但是他內心里對義律仍然是抱有幻想的,認為他“必能悔改”。這種錯誤的認識,也為后來中英鴉片戰爭的爆發埋下了伏筆。

  

  林則徐對外夷的防范是建立在防御小規模沖突上的,故在應對小規模的沖突上還真取得了幾次勝利。

  

  1839年9月,義律悍然率領一艘裝備有14門火炮的兵艦和10艘武裝商船,突然向九龍山口岸的廣東水師巡邏船開火。廣東水師被迫還擊,雙方進行了近半個小時的射擊,義律因彈藥不足先撤退了,這就是“九龍之戰”。www.xz877.com

  

  九龍之戰中,義律沒有討到便宜,曾想第二天繼續進攻中國師船,當義律率領兵艦抵達前一天交戰的地方時,發現三艘中國戰船嚴陣以待,擔心再次吃虧的義律便下令撤兵。撤兵自然得有個撤兵的理由,他給士兵們這樣一個解釋,“他覺得向三只不中用的中國水師兵船開火有損陛下皇家海軍的榮譽”。這個怕挨打還嘴硬的解釋,讓他的士兵們都覺得他很荒唐。

  

  經歷了九龍之戰的義律,面臨三個方面的困難:其一是林則徐為驅逐英商,下令禁止對他們供應食物和淡水,而經此一戰,食物和淡水問題變得更加困難;其二是林則徐下令禁止英商到廣東通商,這個決定也使得英商對義律的挑釁心生不滿;其三是他在此前多次給女王和外交大臣巴麥尊寫信,請求對華用兵,還沒有得到英國政府的答復。所以,義律不得不作出姿態,致書澳門同知蔣立昂,希望就貿易問題展開談判。

  

  林則徐堅持私販鴉片“船貨沒官,人即正法”,義律堅決不同意“人即正法”。雙方的談判仍然在具結與反具結、交兇與反交兇等問題上糾纏不休。實際上,義律仍在借故拖延。

  

  在中英雙方談判過程中,義律得到了巴麥尊的答復:英國將派遠征軍來華。這大大增加了義律的底氣,他決定通過武力來與林則徐對話。

  

  當時,中英貿易問題談判沒有任何進展,引起了英國商人的不滿,紛紛放棄對義律的支持,先后有47艘商船要求具結進港貿易。就連英國“擔麻士葛”號商船也主動簽訂具結,作出永不從事鴉片貿易的保證。英國商人們紛紛效仿,要求遵式具結貿易。

  

  1839年11月,英國兩艘商船遵令具結,被允許進入廣州進行貿易。這讓義律很氣惱,他那邊絞盡腦汁試圖阻止商販簽訂具結,而這邊商人們已經無法忍受長時間毫無結果的拖延,向兩廣總督衙門寫了保證書。得知此情的義律立即派兵船前來阻撓,要他們維護大英帝國的尊嚴。義律希望炮彈的威懾能夠阻撓英國商船同廣東當局簽訂具結。11月3日,當英國“皇家薩克遜”號商船遵令具結準備進入廣州港口時,遭到了義律率領的軍艦的阻撓,在炮彈的威懾之下,“皇家薩克遜”號商船不得不返回。當時,廣東水師提督關天培率領的巡查船也遭到了英國兵艦的襲擊。關天培不得不率軍還擊,雙方激戰達兩個小時,英國兵船一艘沉沒,一艘受傷逃竄,這就是中英兩國水軍正式交鋒的穿鼻海戰。

  

  11月間,中英雙方發生的激烈沖突達7次之多,雖然都是中國獲勝,但是道光帝不是積極備戰,防患于未然,而是不加思考,不對形勢作出正確的分析判斷,一意孤行地推行閉關政策。這一政策最終也導致了鴉片戰爭的爆發。

  

  摘自《晚晴外交七十年》

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