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中秋節有什么習俗?

時間:2018-03-18來源: 作者:

  早在中秋節的前一個月,各式各樣的月餅就紛紛上市了,人們很早就準備好了供節日享用的食品。

  

  節日是從下午的設宴聚餐真正開始。古時漢族的中秋宴俗,最精致高雅、隆重的,當屬宮廷宴席。八月十五這天,上到天子,下到百姓,無一例外地要全家團坐在一起,用餐賞月。明代的宮廷,在八月十五這天,最流行吃螃蟹,人們認為八月十五前后的螃蟹又大又好,是食用的最佳時間,因此中秋這天,大家圍坐在蒸熟的螃蟹周圍,一邊聊天,一邊用餐。在吃的時候還可以蘸上點醋,這樣更可口。吃完螃蟹以后,還要喝蘇葉湯,用蘇葉湯洗手。聚餐過后,大家一同觀看關于中秋的神話戲曲的演出。清代的宮廷中秋節不同于明代,在中秋節這天,多選擇一個合適的院落,在院子的東邊豎一個屏風,屏風兩側擺上雞冠花、毛豆枝等植物。屏風前設一張八仙桌,桌子正中放一個特大的月餅,月餅四周堆滿各式各樣的糕點和時鮮瓜果。祭月完畢,按照皇家人口,每個人都能分到一份月餅,這被稱為“吃團圓餅”。

  

  吃罷晚飯,正是明月冉冉升起的時候,這個時候,節日的氣氛才真正地顯現出來,有的家庭會全家一起去河邊或到視野遼闊的地方賞月。賞月的習俗,一直以來就盛行。在唐代,中秋賞月,許多詩人的名篇中都有詠月的詩句。到了宋朝,中秋節賞月吟詩更為風行,每到中秋之夜,夜市常常通宵營業,賞月游人絡繹不絕。

  

  有的地方民間要舉行“拜月”儀式。到中秋節,各家各戶都要設月餅、西瓜、蘋果、紅棗、李子、葡萄等祭品于香案上,其中月餅和西瓜是必不可少的,并且西瓜還要切成蓮花形狀放在案首。然后要將月神像面向月亮供好,全家按照輩分依次祭拜,然后這家的女主人將月餅切給家人分享。團圓月餅的切法非常講究,在動手之前,要把家中的所有親人都算在內,無論是在家的家人還是在外的游子,都一并算在其中,分出的月餅份數不能有差錯,而且必須每一塊都均勻,不多不少,公平分割。

  

  在中國南方,中秋節晚上還會舉行燈會。在中國的傳統節日中,舉行燈會展覽是一項重要的活動。中秋節也不例外。中秋節的燈會雖然不像元宵節那樣規模宏大,但是中秋節的花燈種類卻非常豐富,有放上天空的孔明燈,有放在水中漂流的荷葉燈,有用柚子皮做成的柚子燈、南瓜掏空做成的南瓜燈,還有稻草燈、魚鱗燈、蛋殼燈等,品種繁多,令人目不暇接。

  

  中國香港地區過中秋節,流行一項古老的慶祝活動,即舞火龍。為了慶祝中秋節這一傳統佳節的到來,香港的銅鑼灣大坑地區每年從農歷八月十四晚就開始了一年一度、延續三天之久的盛大的舞火龍活動,慶祝用的火龍是用珍珠草扎成,一共有三十二節龍身,總計長達七十多米,龍身上插滿了長壽香,舞龍的人們揮舞著火龍在大街小巷歡騰,吸引眾多的民眾前來觀看狂歡,熱鬧非凡。

  

  在中國湖南、貴州、安徽等地有中秋節偷瓜送子的習俗,祈求已婚婦女能夠懷上孩子。在中國臺灣,未婚女子在中秋之夜還會跑到別人的菜園中偷菜,據說如果能夠偷到蔬菜的話,就會找到如意郎君。

  

  國外中秋節

  

  日本中秋節被稱為十五夜,人們在賞月的時候吃江米團子,稱為月見團子。越南中秋節由兒童唱主角,市場上各式月餅、花燈、玩具等節日食品、玩具應有盡有,各地還要舉行花燈節,并對花燈的設計進行評比,優勝者將獲得獎勵。韓國人稱中秋節為秋夕,也稱感恩節。在這天要向親戚朋友送禮。

Tags: 中秋節
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