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元旦的日期是怎么確立的?

時間:2018-12-22來源:歷史故事網 作者: 佚名

  【元旦的日期是怎么確立的?】眾多周知,我國現在通行的歷法,是公歷。辛亥革命推翻滿清之后,為了“行夏正,所以順農時,從西歷,所以便統計”確定使用公元紀年法為我國的正式歷法,1月1日為元旦,同時把農歷1月初一定位“春節”。共產黨建國以后,基本沿用了——正式統計日里采用公歷,節日采用農歷——這套雙重歷法的體制。

元旦怎么確立

  世界上所有的歷法,基本分成兩個體系——陽歷和陰歷。

  

  想知道為什么會有這兩種體系,我們應該先弄清楚幾個概念:

  

  回歸年——從地球上看,太陽從春分點重現回到春分點的時間,為365天5小時48分46秒。

  

  朔望月——從地球上看,月球從一次朔月到另一次朔月的時間,為29天12小時44分2.8秒。

  

  月球公轉周期——月球圍繞地球公轉一圈的準確時間,為27天7小時43分11.559秒。

  

  在地球靜止的情況下,月球的公轉周期是27天多一點,但由于地球本身也圍繞著太陽公轉,所以月球每一輪盈缺,要加上地球公轉的補償時間,這個就是一個朔望月的周期。

  

  一個朔望月的周期,主要由朔月、望月和晦月組成,當月相重新回到朔月的時候,就是一個新的月份的開始,中國農歷成為“初一”。

  

  以這種月相變化的規律每演化12次,就是這類歷法一年的時間,我們把這類,根據月球運行來記錄時間變化的歷法,稱為陰歷。

  

  但這種歷法有一種致命的缺陷,12個朔望月的時間,是354天左右,比起一個回歸年,短了大約11天,為了彌補這11天的差距,多數陰歷都會用每隔數年設置一個閏月這種方法來解決。

  

  但可見,月球的公轉周期與地球的公轉周期,在時間上,數學上并不對稱。

  

  而陽歷則是以地球的公轉周期演化的歷法,完全無視月相盈缺的變化。從地球上觀察,以太陽每一次重新出現在春分點為一個回歸年。

  

  今天通用于世界的”西歷“,屬于陽歷;而中國農歷,則屬于陰歷。

  

  雖然今天的公歷也是將一年分成12個月,但由于朔望體系在陽歷里不起作用,因此并非所有這種體系的歷法都是將一年分成12個月的。如同屬太陽歷的彝族歷就將一年分成10個月;瑪雅歷將一年分成18個月;伊斯蘭的巴哈伊歷法將一年分成19個月。

  

  從以上我們可以得知,在陰歷系統里面,決定哪天是第一天,貌似很容易——只要觀察月相的朔望就可以了。但問題是,月相盈缺無法準確表示出地球與太陽的位置關系。地球之所以有四季,是因為地球自轉軌道與公轉軌道并非水平線般的和諧關系,而是有一個23°26′的夾角,所以當地球處于軌道的不同位置時,地球上每一個地點與太陽的距離都不一樣,季節因此而形成。然而也可以看出,季節的成因完全沒有月球的事,所以陰歷無法清楚表達出氣候的更替。

  

  中國的農歷一直以來都有這個問題,而對于農業文明,氣候更替恰恰又是重中之重的事情。為了解決這個矛盾,我們又設置了二十四節氣。即使在農歷作為法定歷法的朝代里,二十四節氣也沒有固定的日期,每年由中央指派的官員,用測量日晷的方法,確定該年每一個節氣的日子——這是一種陽歷的理論,所以也有人說,中國的農歷是陰陽歷相結合。

  

  而對于陽歷而言,決定新年的第一天,最準確的日子應該是春分日——太陽重新從春分點升起的日子。比如英格蘭,在1752年之前的元旦,就定在3月25日這個接近春分日的時間。

  

  而今天的西歷,叫格里歷。格里歷的體系,主要來源于古羅馬沿用了一千多年的儒略歷,而儒略歷主要又來源于古埃及的歷法。

  

  古埃及人早期主要是用太陰歷,這種歷法也是陰歷,所以元旦也設在朔日的第一天;后來主要使用當時一種結合了早期天文學的民間歷法,以天狼星升起的第一天作為元旦(大約在今天公歷的7月中下旬);再后來又演變成尼羅河泛濫的日子作元旦(公歷6月中旬),這是世界上最早的太陽歷。可見,從這時開始,在陽歷體系里,元旦的設置越來越于天文學息息相關。

  

  凱撒成為羅馬共和國的獨裁官后,改革了歷法,將當時羅馬的陳舊歷法(屬陰歷),以古埃及歷法為基礎進行修改,在公元前46年開始執行使用,而之后的羅馬帝國繼續沿用。由于羅馬的強大,儒略歷漸漸成為當時西方最主要的歷法。

  

  凱撒最初將冬至作為每年的第一天,但受制于多年來沿用陰歷的大臣的反對(他們堅持將朔日作為第一天),又將元旦推遲了10天左右。冬至后的10天,已經非常接近今天的元旦了。

  

  又由于儒略歷里,“一年”的概念與“回歸年”還存在較大誤差,到16世紀后期,儒略歷的春分日與實際春分點已經相差10天了,因此天主教教皇格列高利十三世于1582年頒布了格里歷,將儒略歷1582年10月4日星期四的次日,為格里歷1582年10月15日星期五,即有10天被刪除,但原星期的周期保持不變。

  

  又由于,格里歷的頒布者為天主教教皇,所以,這套歷法的體系既保留了儒略歷的總體方向,不讓當時的歷法和時間出現太顛覆性的變更,也以耶穌的名義,采取了很多宗教歷史的元素。

  

  所以,耶穌出生的該年,成為了公元元年。而在元旦日期的問題上,由于耶穌的誕辰也非常接近儒略歷的元旦,所以他生日的日子就成為了制定元旦重要的參考因素。

  

  耶穌是猶太人,他生平早年的一切習俗,一律遵循猶太教的禮法。根據猶太教義,一名嬰兒剛出生時還不被承認為人,必須要等到他被施與割禮(割包皮)后,他才履行與上帝之立約、確定猶太人身份。

  

  而實施割禮的日子,就是嬰兒落地之后的第八天(根據近年的醫學研究,之所以選第八天,是因為新生兒在出生后2到5天最容易發生出血問題,處理不當則會危及生命。出生達到7天之前,其血液中的血液凝固因子維生素K都幾乎為零。另一血液凝固因子凝血素在出生后第8日處于水平相對最高狀態。因此,男孩出生后的第8天最適合挨一刀,傷口愈合也最理想)。

  

  所以,耶穌作為猶太人,他被割去包皮的那一天,作為公歷元旦,一直被紀念至今。

Tags: 元旦
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