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古羅馬帝國崩潰之通貨膨脹

時間:2017-08-19來源: 作者:

  古羅馬帝國衰落的原因很多,但一個極其重要的原因是通貨膨脹。古羅馬沒有紙幣,只有金銀幣。公元前59年,愷撒擔任古羅馬執政官,公元前50年,愷撒開始發行金幣“安瑞爾斯”,這種金幣純度很高,穩定的貨幣使羅馬帝國商業繁榮,經濟發展。從公元前50年到公元后50年,羅馬帝國的經濟和軍事都處在全盛狀態,穩定的貨幣功不可沒。所有的帝國有錢了都想對外擴張,古羅馬本以“劫掠”起家,當然更難例外。擴張就要打仗,于是龐大的軍費開支成為帝國政府的沉重負擔;再加上新行省的管理需要行政開支,貴族還要花天酒地。政府開支越來越龐大,口袋越來越癟。于是,帝國政府自然而然地走上了濫發貨幣的道路。

  

  帝國政府沒有紙幣,當然不能用今天印錢的辦法,但它自有辦法,即降低金銀幣的成色。公元150年,古羅馬帝國的貨幣含金量只相當于愷撒時代的千分之二,到了公元300年,則只剩六千萬分之一了。錢越來越不值錢了,在約同一時期,小麥的價格整整上漲了兩百倍。各種與貨幣有關的投機活動也層出不窮。工資不穩,物價飛漲,古羅馬帝國與外界的商業聯系幾乎被割斷,國內的商品交換幾乎退回到以物易物的狀態,商人紛紛回到農村老家,城市一片蕭條,到了這個份上,帝國離崩潰就不遠了。

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