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土耳其歷史上的四次軍事政變

時間:2016-07-17來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  按照奧斯曼土耳其人的看法,權力離不開軍隊,軍人在土耳其的任何一個歷史階段都占據著重要的地位,而軍人政治一直是土耳其的主要政治形式。

  

  現代土耳其的政治體制可以看作是“半軍事統治”或“隱性軍事統治”下的有限共和體制,西方研究機構甚至將其總結為“文官執政、軍人監國”模式。

  

  然而,土耳其每次軍人政變的目的都不像其他國家所發生的那樣——企圖掌握政權、成立軍人獨裁政府,而是要起到匡正時弊、安定人心、保證多黨民主政治正常發展的作用。

  

  故而,土耳其軍方在國內擁有崇高聲望。

  

  據統計,從上世紀60年代開始,土耳其軍隊為保證國家政治、經濟和社會穩定,在不到40年內先后發動4場政變,被認為是在關鍵時刻使土耳其避免走向內戰、分裂和獨裁。

  

  【一、1960年5月27日,土耳其總參謀長古爾塞勒發動政變】

  

  上世紀50年代后期,以曼德列斯為首的民主黨政府,在經濟上過度推崇自由化,導致經濟失控,民眾的不滿日益積累。

  

  更糟糕的是,原本地位優越的軍方將領,不但失去了崇高的社會政治地位,而且在通貨膨脹的情況下,工資水平也得不到應有的改善,引起軍隊很多將領的強烈不滿。

  

  在政治上,民主黨利用在議會中的多數地位,逐步轉向獨裁。

  

  1960年4月27日,議會通過法令,授權調查委員會查禁出版物、封閉報館、禁止政治活動、逮捕任何違反規定的人。

  

  28日,伊斯坦布爾爆發了反對曼德列斯獨裁的學生示威,軍警向學生開槍,造成5人死亡,多人受傷。

  

  5月27日土耳其總參謀長古爾塞勒發動政變,以藐視憲法、實行獨裁的罪名,逮捕了總統拜亞爾、總理曼德列斯及民主黨大部分議員和相當一部分官員,政變在沒有流血的情況下為全國承認。

  

時任土耳其總理曼德列斯(右二)被軍方逮捕。

  時任土耳其總理曼德列斯(右二)被軍方逮捕。

  

  隨后拜亞爾、曼德列斯和其他高官被控叛國罪、濫用公共資金和廢除憲法罪。

  

  1961年9月,曼德列斯及外交部長、財政部長被處決,拜亞爾被判無期徒刑。而土軍方則于1個月后還政于民,古爾塞勒被選為總統。

  

  這場政變對土耳其具有深遠影響,軍隊從此擺脫不能干政的束縛。1961年1月4日通過的武裝部隊內部法案使軍方干預政治合法化,在隨后的政變或政變嘗試中,軍人們都拿出這一法案證明自己合法干預政治。

  

  【二、1971年,軍方一份備忘錄就讓政府垮臺】

  

  不同于其他國家軍事政變常伴隨著激烈沖突,在國內擁有崇高聲望的土耳其軍方接管政權甚至只需要一份備忘錄。

  

  上世紀60年代末,暴力和動蕩困擾著土耳其,街頭暴力、工人罷工和政治暗殺此起彼伏。而此時執政的正義黨政府,也處于內部各派系的紛爭中。

  

  1971年1月,土耳其政府無力遏制校園和街頭暴力,也無法通過社會和金融改革的任何重要議案。軍隊出手的時刻再度到來。

  

  3月12日,土耳其總參謀長塔馬奇上將向政府發出一份備忘錄,要求組建一個強有力和可信的政府,結束混亂狀態。如果這些要求不能被滿足,軍隊將“行使憲法賦予的職責”,接管政權。www.xz877.com

  

  總理德米雷爾在與內閣成員舉行3個小時會談后,宣布辭職。

  

  【三、1980年,鐵腕統治引發的政變】

  

  在上世紀70年代的最后幾年,土耳其經濟再度陷入衰退,由此導致前所未有的政治暴力在土耳其爆發,整個70年代政治暴力死亡人數超過5000人。

  

  1979年9月11日,武裝部隊總參謀長埃夫倫命令下屬提交報告,分析是否應進行政變或只需警告政府。軍方智庫的觀點是,需要一場政變。

  

  1980年3月,埃夫倫收到下屬提交的第二份報告,建議軍方高層不要繼續猶豫,得盡快發動政變,否則下級軍官可能會單獨行動。埃夫倫最終下定了決心。

  

  9月12日,由埃夫倫領導的軍方以科尼亞省出現伊斯蘭原教旨主義大游行和社會秩序混亂為由發動武裝政變,逮捕主要政黨領袖、禁止政黨活動,宣布解散議會和內閣,成立國家安全委員會,接管國家權力。

  

  起初土耳其民眾視埃夫倫為英雄,原因是軍政府接管政權有利于阻止左翼和右翼勢力的爭斗,避免土耳其陷入內戰深淵。

  

  但埃夫倫隨后使出鐵血手腕,在全國展開大規模肅清行動,成千上萬的人受到拷打,同時軍政府直接控制著土耳其的電臺和電視臺,對言論自由的管制也更嚴厲。

  

  在接下來3年內,土軍方頒布約800條法律,試圖構建一個軍事紀律嚴明的社會。1982年11月,埃夫倫根據新憲法直接成為土耳其第七任總統。

  

  【四、1997年的軍事政變】

  

1997年的軍事政變

  土耳其最近的一場政變發生在1997年。這一年的2月28日,在國家安全委員會一場會議上,軍方遞交有關世俗主義和政治化伊斯蘭的問題,來自伊斯蘭主義政黨的內吉梅丁·埃爾巴坎總理被迫簽署保護土耳其世俗主義的決議。

  

  不僅如此,在軍方發出備忘錄之后,埃爾巴坎被迫辭職,他還被禁止在5年內從政。

  

  土耳其一名海軍上將形容這場政變是“后現代主義政變”,因為在沒有解散議會和暫停憲法情況下就迫使埃爾巴坎政府垮臺。

  

  時至如今,雖然土耳其總理埃爾多安最近幾年大力打壓軍方勢力,但土軍方仍在土國內保持著很大影響力。

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