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海神媽祖簡介

時間:2018-04-29來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  媽祖:以中國東南沿海為中心信仰的海神

  

  媽祖,以中國東南沿海為中心的海神信仰,又稱天上圣母、天后、天后娘娘、天妃、天妃娘娘、湄洲娘媽等。這一信仰的主體據說是由真人真事演變而來的。考察媽祖的生平得知,這一信仰來自民間傳說。首先是傳說,然后是傳說的歷史化和神化,最后形成普遍的媽祖信仰。

  

  2009年10月,媽祖信仰入選聯合國教科文組織人類非物質文化遺產代表作名錄。

  

  學者研究指出,媽祖是從中國閩越地區的巫覡信仰演化而來,在發展過程中吸收了其他民間信仰(千里眼順風耳)。隨著影響力的擴大,又納入儒家、佛教和道教的因素,最后逐漸從諸多海神中脫穎而出,成為閩臺海洋文化及東亞海洋文化的重要元素。

  

  自北宋開始神格化,被稱為媽祖(當地人對女性祖先的尊稱),并受人建廟膜拜,復經宋高宗封為靈惠夫人,成為朝廷承認的神只。媽祖信仰自福建傳播到浙江、廣東、臺灣、琉球、日本、東南亞(如泰國、馬來西亞、新加坡、越南)等地,天津、上海、南京以及山東、遼寧沿海均有天后宮或媽祖廟分布。

  

  近年媽祖在東亞海洋史的研究引出東亞在西方航海地理發現前己有的朝貢貿易、琉球網絡及跨國移民史討論,而媽祖信仰圈成為東亞海洋經濟及社會結構形成的歷史見證之一。

  

  媽祖作為一個古代漢族民間的神祗,為何她的精神能被海內外、世界上這么多人認可、贊揚和崇敬呢?這里一個重要原因就是,媽祖身上聚集了中華民族的傳統美德和崇高的精神境界。媽祖她作為一個漢族民間的漁家女,善良正直,見義勇為,扶貧濟困,解救危難,造福民眾,保護中外商船平安航行,凡此種種都是功德無量的事情,所以才會深受百姓的崇敬。媽祖做了很多有益于民眾的善事義舉,因此受到了海內外很多百姓的尊敬和膜拜。

  

海神媽祖簡介

  莆田是對外移民的原鄉。在潮汕民居門樓額匾仍可見到“莆田舊家”、“莆陽世系”等莆田印記。海南可考的入瓊始祖有九十多個,數量為來自莆田為最。而莆田崇尚美德、堅守家鄉傳統的文化氛圍,熏陶影響了這些遷移者,加上濃重的戀鄉情結,來自家鄉的媽祖崇拜自然而然就隨著這些遷移者來到了全國、海外各地。

  

  宋元時期,泉州是世界最大貿易港之一,元政府為了發展海上貿易,媽祖因被引進至海外交通貿易繁盛的泉州港,成為泉州海神,并因漕運及海外交通的發展,成為全國性海神并遠播海外。

  

  明清海禁,福建大批民眾為了生計下南洋過臺灣,媽祖信仰也隨著商人和移民的足跡更為廣泛地在海外傳播。

  

  媽祖的宮廟有很多,其中,湄洲媽祖祖廟,莆田平海天后宮,泉州的天后宮,寧波慶安天后宮,澳門的媽祖閣,臺灣北港朝天宮和鹿港媽祖廟,汕頭媽嶼島的天后古廟,汕頭市區升平老媽宮,漳州漳浦的烏石天后宮都為中國天后宮有名的大廟。

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