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耶魯大學與湘雅醫院的歷史故事

時間:2019-01-08來源:歷史故事網 作者: 孫卓

  耶魯在湖南 (1)/孫卓
  耶魯是美國的著名大學,培養出的歷屆總統、國務卿、參眾議員不計其數,獲諾貝爾獎金的科學家也不計其數,這是許多人都知道的。那么耶魯與遠在萬里之外的中國湖南有什么關系呢?這卻是很多人所不知道的。
  湖南省會長沙市內有一所歷史悠久的醫院──湘雅醫院,它的對面隔著馬路,就是并校后歸屬中南大學的湖南醫學院了,而湘雅醫院一度叫做"湖南醫學院附屬第一醫院",其實湖南醫學院在解放前一直叫做"湘雅醫學院"的。所以"湘雅"既是醫院之名,也是醫學院之名。
  那么"湘雅"到底是什么意思呢?"湘"字不難理解,湖南省之簡稱也,自古如是;而"雅"字呢?那本是"雅禮"的縮稱,而這"雅禮"不過是"耶魯"(Yale)的舊譯而已。如此說來,"湘雅"醫學院及附屬醫院,自然就是"湖南耶魯"醫學院及附屬醫院了。其實更值得一提的是,湘雅醫院是中國規模完善的第一所現代西醫醫院,比聲名赫赫的北京協和醫院問世還要早上六年!那么又是因為什么原因,中國的第一所西醫院竟設在了遠離政治經濟中樞的湖南長沙,而不是在首都或是開風氣之先的沿海呢?這就說來話長了。
  湖南這個地方有兩個特點,一是富庶,自古有"湖廣熟,天下足"之謂;二是人不安分,敢為天下先者眾多,所以才有"無湘不成軍"和"亡中國除非先亡湖南"之說。戊戌年那個孤身威逼武人袁世凱殺西太后不成,事敗可逃而不逃,偏要以身殉難的譚嗣同,就是湖南人的典型標本,更不必論前之曾左,后之毛劉了。說這么幾句題外話,為的是要說明,把"耶魯"給惹進湖南,說到底還是湖南人自己這點_脾氣。
  晚清國事日非,列強環伺,教案頻起,湖南便適時出了個按捺不住的周漢。周漢,字鐵真,寧鄉人,曾入左宗棠幕府幫辦營務,升陜西候補道,后因病返湘,寄居省城長沙,在寶善堂刊印圖書。光緒十四年(公元1889年),周漢由于耳聞目睹西洋傳教士來華日多,內中頗有包攬詞訟、強占田產的不法情事,乃刊刻了一本專以反洋教為目的的通俗圖冊,題名叫做《天豬教》。之后周漢一發而不可收,秘密刻印散發類似的反教宣傳品長達十年之久,且種類繁多,數量驚人,流布于湖南全省,乃至于長江流域,華北西北,均有人暗中傳閱。周漢的言論中,不外乎稱世間只有儒釋道三正教,其余皆為邪教、妖教、"天豬教"(取天主教之諧音);洋人來華只是想"謀中國江山,剝中國銀錢,害中國性命";說洋教士拿中國人剜眼、割腎、取胎、切奶,無惡不作;國人自應"崇正黜邪"、"殺身報國",以衛道保種云云。周漢的宣傳品對于催生后來的義和團滅洋風潮,應有相當之作用。周漢的免費宣傳一干十年,清廷與各國傳教士竟然俱不知何人所為。總理各國事務衙門在洋人的催逼下明察暗訪,發現這些印刷品多來自湖南長沙,終于偵知周漢其人。湖廣總督張之洞在洋人和上峰的雙重壓力下,按李鴻章給出的主意:"以別項劣跡,奏明酌量辦理",給周漢扣了一個"瘋癲成性,煽惑人心"的罪名,將他"照瘋病例"留獄長期拘押監禁,時在光緒二十三年(公元1898年)。說起來思想政治犯另擬罪名定讞,以防人之口,真是由來已久呢。
  周漢被囚,是在庚子之變前,但他的影響卻及于庚子之后。當京城和華北的"拳亂"鬧得洶洶然,而后八國聯軍登陸大沽口,進軍北京解使館之圍,迫使"兩宮西狩"的時候,湖廣總督張之洞與兩江總督劉坤一聯絡兩廣總督李鴻章,與洋人搞起了"東南互保",其實是以理性的態度拒不執行慈禧與所有洋人開戰的"亂命",極力保持洋務運動好不容易才開創的現代化進程,這份苦心在亂平后是連老佛爺自己都不得不稱贊的。可站在類似周漢的"華洋不兩立"的頑固立場上來看,則"謂朝廷誤信李、張則可,謂朝廷誤信拳民則不可"(湖南邵陽欲組軍"勤王"的賀金聲語),所以"蓋天下百姓之于洋人,莫不恨入骨髓,思圖報復。向之所以未發者,畏李、張得挾天子以防制之"(出處同前)。在遠離北方戰亂中心的湖南,竟連續發生逆張之洞等維持和局意圖的事件:衡州教案、辰州教案、賀金聲欲組軍勤王案,表現出強烈的仇洋情緒,恐怕不能說與周漢此前的大力宣傳無關。于是張之洞處于微妙的局勢之中,自然不得不委曲周旋,對內彈壓,對外解釋,雖勉力平息事態,卻留下了"奴顏媚外"的罵名。
  湖南人頑固排外的名聲遠播,竟然傳到了大洋彼岸的美國耶魯大學,激起了一群同樣倔_的美國年輕人的傳教熱情!他們積極籌集資金,爭取教師支持,到1902年共募集一萬七千美元,成立了"耶魯外國傳教團",建立了"耶魯中國計劃"(Yale in China),決心在中國縱深地區推行基督教教育,要"為上帝,為遠東的兄弟們的福祉,貢獻名曰‘耶魯精神’的那種力量",他們發誓要將基督精神發揚光大于最保守排外的湖南!而絕不愿意坐享其成,去諸如北京上海那樣看起來更適合開展工作的地方。他們奔的就是長沙這個"散布以暴力手段對付傳教士的言論中心",真有點明知山有虎,偏向虎山行的勇氣呢。這大概就是"兩個文明的沖突"?鑒古而知今,一百年前湖南"_驢子"們保種衛道的執拗,比之今日之中東伊斯蘭原教旨主義者何如?而當年耶魯學子們的傳教熱情,比之今日小布什不惜動用武力,必欲向全世界推行其價值觀的"牛仔外交"又何如?真個是后之視今,猶如今之視昔乎?噫嘻,悲夫……
  反正"耶魯"就這么到湖南來了!其后盾是所謂"雅禮基金會",目的是仿照英國牛津大學和劍橋大學在印度設立傳教會的方式,也在中國設立雅禮會,并發展會員。經一番實地考察后,雅禮會決定邀請正在印度孟買行醫的愛德華。休姆(E.H.Hume)代表雅禮會,到湖南行醫,建立傳教的立足點。然而休姆因祖父、父親都在印度工作多年,此時他自己已在孟買開設了一家醫院,視印度為自己的第二故鄉,他不愿去陌生混亂的中國湖南。可雅禮會自有做思想工作打動休姆的辦法:他們承諾讓他去辦一家最新式的現代化醫院,而且在時機成熟時,要開辦一家像休姆的母校約翰。霍普金斯醫學院那樣的醫科大學。這個誘惑太難以抵制了,特別是對于休姆這樣一個年輕有為、事業心極強的醫生來說。休姆專為此行學習了一年漢語后,終于在1905年攜嬌妻幼兒登船浮海而來,于次年歲初抵達長沙,他時年29歲,從此以漢名"胡美"為中國人所知。他為自己取這樣一個名字,是否在表示我是一個為湖南服務的美國人?此種臆測已無從證實。只知他在與中國人打交道時謙和有禮,常躬身自我介紹:"敝姓胡,胡美。" 

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