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民國“天乳運動”:解放身體 止于至善

時間:2017-05-18來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  不說或許不知道,今年是胸罩發明整整100年。如果根據嚴格的考古發現,胸罩的歷史可以很悠久,直追溯到公元15世紀奧地利提洛爾東部的朗博格城堡出土的文物。但是現代意義上的胸罩,一般以1914年由美國人瑪麗·菲爾普斯·雅各布(MaryPhelpsJacob)的改良版本為準。因為這一年,她向美國政府申請了專利保護。而更為重要的則是,經她改良的胸罩可以方便和現代服飾搭配,修身、提胸,令女性身體曲線與特征突顯出來。

  

  1914年,從國際上看,是第一次世界大戰開戰的一年。接下來的4年時間,由于鋼鐵緊缺,不少婦女胸罩內的鋼絲都被征用為軍需物資。而同樣是這年,讓我們把視野縮小到中國,則是民國三年,袁世凱正在準備次年他的君主立憲大業。在那個小政府的年代,民間的文化活力大得驚人。當時中國與世界流行時尚接軌的速度,恐怕令今天生活在互聯網時代的人也要嘆為觀止。

  

民國“天乳運動”

  胸罩發明不久就已經傳入中國。我們很難找出誰是第一個穿戴胸罩的人,但種種跡象表明,這人很可能是個性工作者。而且,出現在當時聲色犬馬的上海。1918年,上海市議員江確生在致函江蘇省公署時說:“婦女現流行一種淫妖之時下衣服,實為不成體統,不堪寓目者。女衫手臂則露出1尺左右,女褲則吊高至1尺有余,及至暑天,內則穿衣粉紅洋紗背心,而外罩以有眼紗之紗衫,幾至肌肉盡露。”而1920年,上海政府則發布布告稱,禁止“一切所穿衣服或故為短小袒臂露脛或摹仿異式不倫不類”,并稱其“招搖過市恬不為怪,時髦爭夸,成何體統”“故意奇裝異服以致袒臂、露脛者,準其立即逮案,照章懲辦”,按照這則公告的說法,女子只要穿著低胸露乳、裸露胳膊、小腿的服裝,就將面臨逮捕入獄之災。我們可以腦補當時所謂“有傷風化”的服裝,其實就是胸罩。

  

  和歷史上所有新生事物的出現一樣,有悲觀的反對派,就有樂觀的開明派。幾乎與江確生反對“淫妖”衣服同時,中國第一位留洋性學博士張競生,在其著名的《美的人生觀》一書中抨擊束胸:“束胸使女子美德性征不能表現出來,胸平扁如男子,不但自己不美而且使社會失了多少興趣。”——廣東很快成為停止束胸運動的前線。1927年7月8日,時任廣東民政廳廳長、著名學者朱家驊在《民國日報》上刊登《禁止婦女束胸提案》:“廳長有見及此,亟思將女子束胸之陋習,嚴行禁革。擬請由省政府布告,通行遵照,自布告日起,限三個月內,所有全省女子,一律禁止束胸,并通行本省各婦女機關及各縣長設法宣傳,務期依限禁絕。倘逾限仍有束胸,一經查確,即處以五十元以上之罰金……”朱家驊以罰款嚴禁束胸,從此,一場轟轟烈烈的“天乳運動”拉開帷幕。

  

  “天乳運動”之名,當然是與“天足運動”遙相呼應。民國初年,朝野各方想盡辦法廢除纏足陋習。然而,無論是“天足”還是“天乳”,其背后的邏輯卻都不是為了女性身體的解放,而是為了進行一場針對中國人國民性的大改造。

  

  香港學者吳昊在《都會云裳》一書中說:“短短十五年光景,能把悠悠一千年纏足惡習解除,小腳革命之所以成功快速,除婦女覺醒的緣故外,還是政治形勢使然。其一,晚清正處于內憂外患,兵荒馬亂,纏足婦女竟連避災逃難也無能為力,‘一旦遇兵燹,遇災害,寸步難移,只有尋死一法,傷心慘目’。其二,很多論者認為纏足婦女深閨弱質,多病且夭。母體弱,則先天征薄,而生子亦弱,‘國非人不立,以弱孕弱,弱無已時,而國且隨之矣!’將國家和民族存亡與女人的身體扯上關系,就在這時期開始了,反纏足也象征著反帝國主義。”

  

  與我們印象中不同的是,對“天足”“天乳”的最大反對聲音并非來自傳統禮教或者士大夫。美國哥倫比亞大學歷史教授高彥頤,在她著名的《纏足:金蓮崇拜盛極而衰的演變》中指出,真正阻礙“天足運動”的是來自民間的保守文化力量,尤其是當一種習慣變成了身份、地位的象征之后,這種被建構的傳統,才是個體解放的最大阻力。如果無法理解,不妨換個角度想想,滿清女人并不纏足,入關起初也禁止漢族女性纏足,但卻遭到漢族女性的激烈反抗。最后是清廷選擇妥協,甚至成為“男降女不降”之美談——因為漢族男性都迫于滿清淫威剃頭。余英時也曾說:“正如狄百瑞說的那樣:‘纏足經常被當作顯示儒學殘忍、扭曲、男權至上的罪惡習標志。’但實際上正如他清楚地闡明,這種侵犯女人權的極端形式與儒學、佛教均毫無關系。”(見《民主、人權與儒家文化》)

  

  那么,1920年代民間怎樣反對“天乳”呢?以1928年7月《申報》的一篇報道為例,當時廣州大沙頭一位觀念進步的先生,帶著沒有束胸的妻子出門。結果,其妻在路上連連被譏笑為“村下婆”。妻子羞愧難當,立刻現買了一件小衫,找了個隱蔽的地方,把胸束好,才愿意與先生繼續逛街。換句話說,民國初年的女人不把自己弄成“飛機場”,都不好意思逛街。另外,雖然1927年朱家驊下令束胸要罰款,但次年的廣州街頭,還是一派束胸的風光,實無變化。

  

  如果讀者有機會看到民國初年所謂“上海十大名妓”的照片,也會驚訝地發現,幾乎全都是平胸。在她們寬大的衣服下面,是將胸部繃得緊緊的“小馬甲”。作家包天笑曾在《六十年來妝服志》中寫道:“小馬甲多半以絲織品為主,小家則用布,對胸有密密的紐扣,把人捆住,因從前的年輕女子,以胸部高聳為羞,故百計掩護之。”但沒過幾年,上海再一次引領時代風潮。

  

  在1920年代的上海,民間悄然流行起穿戴“義乳”(“義”者,假也,比如“義肢”“義眼”“義兄”等等)。可是,誰來做第一個吃螃蟹的人,卻成為另外的大問題。正如上文所說,我們現在已無從考證究竟是誰第一個嘗試戴“義乳”,但是從公開資料來看,1930年代紅極一時的影星阮玲玉,或許是第一個身體力行的公眾人物。阮玲玉以精湛的演技蜚聲影壇,并且創立了旗袍的獨特美學。傳統的肚兜只有遮擋的效果,而“義乳”卻可以突顯女性高挑的身材,將胸部挺起。戴上“義乳”的阮玲玉,豐胸、細腰,與旗袍的剪裁樣式天衣無縫。阮玲玉穿戴“義乳”,標志著中式及西式服裝開始融合。與此同時,作為“天之驕子”的民國“官二代”,也在追求時尚。1930年,民國內務總長朱桂莘之女名媛洪筠,穿著西式泳裝在北戴河游泳——這舉動成為當時備受爭議的事件。

  

  阮玲玉之后,上海灘的衣著風尚很快發生變化,形成以“露、透、瘦”為新標準的審美。《申報》、《玲瓏》雜志等當時發行量巨大的報刊,都有胸罩乃至豐胸的廣告。據說,當時才十幾歲的張愛玲很喜歡穿各種時尚的服裝。

  

  張愛玲在1942年(22歲)創作的《更衣記》中寫道:“中國女子在緊身背心的功用實在奇妙——衣服再緊些,衣服底下的肉體也還不是寫實派的作風,看上去不大像個女人而像一縷詩魂,長襖的直線延至膝蓋為止,下面虛飄飄垂下了條窄窄的褲管……上層階級的女子出門系裙,在家里只穿一條齊膝的短褲,絲襪也只到膝為止,褲與襪的交界處偶然也大膽地暴露了膝蓋,存心不良的女子往往從襖底垂下挑逗性的長而寬的淡色絲質褲帶,帶端飄著排穗。”時代之車,已經順利啟動,“天乳”之勢不可阻擋,而這也是民國步上世界舞臺的一個瞬間。在此之后的幾十年后,中國再一次遭遇束胸逆潮,那是后話了。

  

  綜上所述,民國初年“天胸運動”的初衷,其實是為了改造中國人的體質。這是在達爾文“演化論”被曲解為“進化論”更加發展成“社會達爾文主義”之后的一個悲劇——人們將女性看做生育更加優良人種的工具。但是在這個過程中,女性的身體也不容否認獲得了某種程度的解放。或許在歷史面前,我們不必太過計較那個原初的目的是什么,更不必拘泥于誰利用了誰之類的陰謀論,而應該看到整件事的結果是有益的——換句話說,在整個過程中,誰說女性又沒有反利用男性的那種幼稚的“工具主義”心理呢?

  

  身體解放,止于至善。

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