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霍金的故事:輪椅上的世界

時間:2017-06-02來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  “果殼中的宇宙”這個隱喻來自莎士比亞的名句:“即便把我關在果殼之中,仍然自以為無限空間之王。”其實,用這個隱喻來形容史蒂芬·霍金本身是最貼切不過了,它既形象地闡述了霍金的宇宙觀,又生動地概括了霍金富有傳奇色彩的一生。

  

  少年歷程:打破沙鍋問到底

  

  1942年1月8日,史蒂芬·霍金出生于英國牛津,這一天恰好是伽利略逝世300周年的忌日。這一天并沒有什么特別的意義,霍金認為這純粹是一個巧合,因為每天都有數以萬計的人降生于世。

  

  小時候的霍金與一般的孩子一樣,有自己擅長的方面,但不是全才。例如,他相當晚才學會閱讀,但他對事物的來龍去脈特別感興趣,他曾計算過進自家屋子的各種方法,發現共有11種。

  

  霍金一旦對某件事情感興趣,就會投入百分之百的注意力,例如,他可以花整個晚上玩某種復雜的游戲,這也許是導致霍金取得成功的重要因素。他還喜歡和擅長設計復雜游戲,這種創造一個“世界”并賦予它規則的游戲讓他感到非常愜意。

  

  不治之癥:“鳳凰涅磐”成巨人

  

  霍金過完21歲生日之后不久進醫院檢查,被診斷患了肌肉萎縮性脊髓側索硬化癥。在英國,這種病也叫運動神經細胞病;在美國,這種病被稱為盧伽雷癥,以患該病而死于1941年的紐約洋基棒球隊一壘手的名字命名。患者脊髓和大腦內控制肌肉運動的神經細胞逐漸死亡,但頭腦的思維不受影響。患者通常因呼吸肌功能失效導致肺炎或窒息而死亡。這是一種不治之癥,病情會穩定下來,但永遠不可能治愈,只能等待或早或遲(可能是幾個月后,也可能是幾十年后)到來的死亡。霍金患此病的年齡大大低于大多數病人,因此,人們認為他會更早而不是更晚地死去,醫生曾宣布他只能活兩年半。

  

  受此影響,那時,霍金對生活非常厭倦,覺得沒有任何值得做的事情。但是,出院后的霍金有一次夢到自己被處以極刑,他突然意識到活下去是值得的,如果被緩刑的話,還有很多事情可以做。從那時起,他開始進行研究,大約18個月后,皇家學會發表了他的一篇論文。他在文章中對霍伊爾教授的最新引力理論做了些修正,霍伊爾對此表示感謝。霍伊爾、邦迪和高爾德同為穩恒態宇宙論的開創者,霍金選擇劍橋大學時本來是想跟從霍伊爾的,但未能如愿。

  

  當時尚是研究生的霍金由此開始了他的研究生涯,在研究的道路上經過幾十年的跋涉后,終成一代大師,被譽為“當代愛因斯坦”。

  

  涉足科普:無心插柳柳成蔭

  

  1982年,當霍金面臨女兒露西開學需交一筆高昂的學費時,決定面向一般公眾寫一本有關宇宙的書,開始了《時間簡史》一書的寫作。1984年,他完成了《時間簡史》的初稿,并進行修改。沒想到“無心插柳柳成蔭”,《時間簡史》一書獲得了極大的成功,至今已銷售2500萬冊,成為出版界、科普界的一件盛事。《紐約時報》評論說:“霍金先生無疑具有教師天賦,輕松幽默,擅長以日常生活的隱喻來詮釋極端復雜的主題。”《圖書目錄》給出的評論是:“這位因研究黑洞本性而名震天下的理論物理學家,作為科普作家正像他作為科學家一樣游刃有余。”霍金意外地發現自己寫作科普的天分之后,再接再厲,接著推出了插圖本《時間簡史》和《果殼中的宇宙》,躋身于世界頂級科普作家之列。他不僅在生活中成為一個王者,還成為科普創作之王。

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