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司馬遷的故事

時間:2015-08-20來源:歷史故事網 作者:
司馬遷的故事

  蘇武出使匈奴的第二年,漢武帝派貳師將軍李廣利帶兵三萬,攻打匈奴,打了個大敗仗,幾乎全軍覆沒,李廣利逃了回來。李廣的孫子李陵當時擔任騎都尉,帶著五千名步兵跟匈奴作戰。單于親自率領三萬騎兵把李陵的步兵團團圍困住。盡管李陵的箭法十分好,兵士也十分勇敢,五千步兵殺了五六千名匈奴騎兵,但是匈奴兵越來越多,漢軍寡不敵眾,后面又沒救兵,最后只剩了四百多漢兵突圍出來。李陵被匈奴逮住,投降了。

  

  李陵投降匈奴的消息震動了朝廷。漢武帝把李陵的母親和妻兒都下了監獄,并且召集大臣,要他們議一議李陵的罪行。

  

  大臣們都譴責李陵不該貪生怕死,向匈奴投降。漢武帝問太史令司馬遷,聽聽他的意見。

  

  司馬遷說:“李陵帶去的步兵不滿五千,他深入到敵人的腹地,打擊了幾萬敵人。他雖然打了敗仗,可是殺了這么多的敵人,也可以向天下人交代了。李陵不肯馬上去死,準有他的主意。他一定還想將功贖罪來報答皇上。”

  

  漢武帝聽了,認為司馬遷這樣為李陵辯護,是有意貶低李廣利(李廣利是漢武帝寵妃的哥哥),勃然大怒,說:“你這樣替投降敵人的人強辯,不是存心反對朝廷嗎?”他吆喝一聲,就把司馬遷下了監獄,交給廷尉審問。

  

  審問下來,把司馬遷定了罪,應該受腐刑(一種肉刑)。司馬遷拿不出錢贖罪,只好受了刑罰,關在監獄里。

  

  司馬遷認為受腐刑是一件很丟臉的事,他幾乎想自殺。但他想到自己有一件極重要的工作沒有完成,不應該死。因為當時他正在用全部精力寫一部書,這就是我國古代最偉大的歷史著作──《史記》。

  

  原來,司馬遷的祖上好幾輩都擔任史官,父親司馬談也是漢朝的太史令。司馬遷十歲的時候,就跟隨父親到了長安,從小就讀了不少書籍。

  

  為了搜集史料,開闊眼界,司馬遷從二十歲開始,就游歷祖國各地。他到過浙江會稽,看了傳說中大禹召集部落首領開會的地方;到過長沙,在汨羅江邊憑吊愛國詩人屈原;他到過曲阜,考察孔子講學的遺址;他到過漢高祖的故鄉,聽取沛縣父老講述劉邦起兵的情況……這種游覽和考察,使司馬遷獲得了大量的知識,又從民間語言中汲取了豐富的養料,給司馬遷的寫作打下了重要的基礎。

  

  以后,司馬遷當了漢武帝的侍從官,又跟隨皇帝巡行各地,還奉命到巴、蜀、昆明一帶視察。

  

  司馬談死后,司馬遷繼承父親的職務,做了太史令,他閱讀和搜集的史料就更多了。

  

  在他正準備著手寫作的時候,就為了替李陵辯護得罪武帝,下了監獄,受了刑。他痛苦地想:這是我自己的過錯呀。

  

  現在受了刑,身子毀了,沒有用了。

  

  但是他又想:從前周文王被關在羑里,寫了一部《周易》;孔子周游列國的路上被困在陳蔡,后來編了一部《春秋》;屈原遭到放逐,寫了《離騷》;左丘明眼睛瞎了,寫了《國語》;孫臏被剜掉膝蓋骨,寫了《兵法》。還有《詩經》三百篇,大都是古人在心情憂憤的情況下寫的。這些著名的著作,都是作者心里有郁悶,或者理想行不通的時候,才寫出來的。我為什么不利用這個時候把這部史書寫好呢?

  

  于是,他把從傳說中的黃帝時代開始,一直到漢武帝太始二年(公元前95年)為止的這段時期的歷史,編寫成一百三十篇、五十二萬字的巨大著作《史記》。

  

  司馬遷在他的《史記》中,對古代一些著名人物的事跡都作了詳細的敘述。他對于農民起義的領袖陳勝、吳廣,給予高度的評價;對被壓迫的下層人物往往表示同情的態度。他還把古代文獻中過于艱深的文字改寫成當時比較淺近的文字。人物描寫和情節描述,形象鮮明,語言生動活潑。因此,《史記》既是一部偉大的歷史著作,又是一部杰出的文學著作。

  

  司馬遷出了監獄以后,擔任中書令。后來,終于郁郁不樂地死去。但他和他的著作《史記》在我國的史學史、文學史上都享有很高的地位。

 

 

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