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朱德的故事

時間:2015-08-08來源:歷史故事網 作者:
朱德的故事

  朱德的生母鐘氏(1858-1944),從小生長在極端貧困、社會地位十分低下的流浪藝人家里。鐘氏19歲嫁到朱家,數十年如一日每天天不亮就起床,煮了全家的飯,還要種田、種菜、喂豬、養蠶、紡棉花、挑水、挑糞,生朱德的前幾分鐘還在灶前煮飯,朱德呱呱落地之后,她又起身接著做飯。鐘氏生有13個子女,由于生活艱難,有5個剛剛生下來就被溺死。

  

  朱德在兩歲時被過繼給大伯父。大伯父因無后代,遂領養朱德為嗣。這樣朱德又多了一位養父和養母。鐘氏晚年知道自己的兒子擔任了八路軍總司令,仍不輟勞作,自食其力。她唯一所求就是在有生之年能見兒子一面,因處于抗戰時期,朱德身負重任,鐘氏未能如愿。1944年2月15日,以86歲高齡辭世。

  

  朱德母親去世之后,蔡暢在延安紀念三八婦女節大會上說,朱德母親的模范行為是婦女界的光輝榜樣。1944年4月10日,延安各界100多人舉行了隆重的追悼大會。

  

  中共中央的挽聯是:“八路功勛大孝為國,一生勞動吾黨之光。”

  

  毛澤東的挽聯是:“為母當學民族英雄賢母,斯人無愧勞動階級完人。”

  

  中共中央黨校的挽聯是:“唯有勞動人民母性,能育勞動人民領袖。”

  

  鐘氏去世之后,朱德十分悲痛,百忙之中寫下了《母親的回憶》,發表在1944年4月5日延安出版的《解放日報》上。幾十年之后,一名外國記者問朱德:“您一生最大遺憾是什么?”朱德回答說:“最大的遺憾就是在老母逝世前連一杯水都沒倒。”

  

  朱德簡介

  

  朱德,字玉階,1886年生于四川儀隴縣一個農家。少年下田勞作并讀過私塾,20歲時到成都考取了高等師范,畢業后回縣城當了體育教員。看到社會黑暗和時局動蕩,他徒步跋涉3個月到昆明,考入由留學日本成為“士官三杰”之一的蔡鍔所主辦的云南講武堂。在講武堂中,朱德參加了反清革命的同盟會,參加了辛亥革命。

  

  朱德畢業后,在滇軍中由少尉排長干起,在討袁和軍閥混戰中一直升至少將旅長,名震川滇。當時他與別的將領不同,對黷武爭權深感厭倦,喜好音樂,在家中廣泛接納青年軍官及學生,并讀過《新青年》等雜志。

  

  1921年,朱德主動離開月收入大洋數以千計的軍界,外出學習。翌年,朱德到上海見到孫中山,提出革命不能靠與軍閥結盟。他又見到陳獨秀,提出加入中國共產黨。一個舊軍隊的將軍想入黨,這使當時的中共中央領導人大感驚訝,盡管鼓勵朱德追求進步,卻未同意。

  

  1922年秋,朱德乘船赴歐,到德國學習戰術,并研究社會主義理論。在那里,他見到了周恩來。翌年,經周恩來介紹加入了共產黨。1925年,朱德又入莫斯科共產主義勞動大學,并在軍訓班學習。在那里,他提出回國后如打不贏就上山,令蘇軍的教官驚訝。

  

  1926年朱德回國后,利用舊關系到川軍、滇軍中動員北伐,并秘密做共產黨的工作。1927年南昌起義時,朱德率領滇軍教育團一部參加,任第九軍副軍長。起義軍南征潮汕失敗時,他在危境中率領“鐵軍”余部近千人進入粵北、湘南,于1928年4月走上井岡山與毛澤東會合,建立了紅四軍并任軍長,成為全國第一支主力紅軍的最高軍事指揮員。

  

  1930年,朱德成為紅一方面軍總司令,翌年成為中國工農紅軍總司令。此后幾十年間,“總司令”在黨內成為朱德的代稱。在紅軍長征時,他有時也擔負具體作戰指揮。抗戰初期,他率八路軍總部前往太行山前線。1940年回延安后,因年紀已大,主要協助毛澤東指揮全局,不過1947年攻克石家莊時他曾親臨前線指揮。

  

  新中國建立后,朱德先后任國家和黨的副主席、全國人大委員長,1955年授十大元帥時為第一名。1959年廬山會議上,他不同意給彭德懷那樣定性,被有人說成年老糊涂。“文革”初定林彪為接班人時,他不表贊成,1975年又率先揭發江青,可見心底如明鏡。

  

  1976年7月,朱德以90歲高齡去世。

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