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虞姬簡介

時間:2015-09-15來源:歷史故事網 作者:
虞姬簡介

  楚漢之爭時期“西楚霸王”項羽的愛妻,姓虞(在《漢書·項籍傳》中有“有美人姓虞”的記載)。

  

  一說名虞(在《史記·項羽本經》中有“有美人名虞”的記載),小名為妙弋。生卒年不詳,華夏族,出生地不詳(一說今常熟虞山腳下虞溪村,一說今沭陽縣顏集鄉,一說今紹興縣漓渚鎮塔石村)。

  

  相傳容顏傾城,才藝并重,舞姿美艷,并有“虞美人”之稱。曾在四面楚歌的困境下一直陪伴在項羽身邊,后人也因此根據項羽所作的《垓下歌》推斷出她在楚營內自刎,由此流傳了一段關于“霸王別姬”的佳話。

  

  身世之謎

  

  史書中對虞姬的記載的較少,甚至連名字都沒有留下。在《史記·項羽本紀》里記載道:“有美人名虞。”因此后來就出現了兩種說法:一是有人推測“虞”是美人的名;二則“虞”是美人的姓,《辭源》備有此說。而“虞姬”則是后人對其的稱呼,關于“姬”這個字,也有一定的說法,體上有兩個含義:一是“姬”就是她的姓;二則是“姬”是古代婦女的美稱。虞姬的姬可以歸為第二義,即美稱。總而言之,人們只能得知虞姬的姓名與“虞”字有關,而她的真實姓名,卻成為了一個謎。

  

  相傳,項梁殺人避禍攜項羽由下相奔吳中,即今日蘇州地。虞氏為會稽郡(秦末置春秋吳、越地域為會稽郡,以吳(今蘇州)為郡治)吳中望族。項梁叔侄在此結交江東子弟。虞姬,慕項羽英名,嫁與項羽為妻,陪伴左右。抑或可以說是項羽有幸得識虞姬,得此佳人,共譜華章。

  

  虞姬究竟是什么人?她的絕世容貌如何?早已消失在歷史帷幕的深處。在現代,梅蘭芳等藝術家,一直借題發揮,扮演《霸王別姬》,讓她到臺前且歌且舞,亦悲亦泣,把“幽恨”二字張揚到了美學的境界。虞姬形象如何,我們都不知道,但可以肯定的是,她至少擁有美貌、才藝與風情三大優勢(林黛玉筆下的五美,包括她自己,都是色、藝、情三者兼而有之,所以林妹妹才如此地惺惺相惜),這就讓“力拔山兮氣蓋世”的大王像《金瓶梅》開篇里說的:“只因撞著虞姬……豪杰都休。”

  

  從歷史和政治上來說,項羽是敗軍之將,劉邦是開國之勛。但從人格力量和美學角度看過去,項羽因了虞姬,因了在最后一搏的生死關頭竟然對虞姬“泣數行下”,讓后人,至少是讓我覺得,這個兒女情長英雄氣短的大將軍更有人情味,更具個性光彩,比起劉邦來也就顯得更真更善更美。

  

虞姬簡介

  霸王別姬

  

  虞姬常隨項羽出征,楚漢相爭后期,項羽趨于敗局,于公元前202年,被漢軍圍困垓下(今安徽省靈璧縣東南),兵少糧盡,夜聞四面楚歌,哀大勢已去,面對虞姬,在營帳中酌酒悲歌:“力拔山兮氣蓋世,時不利兮騅不逝,騅不逝兮可奈何,虞兮虞兮奈若何?”歌詞蒼涼悲壯,情思繾綣悱惻,史稱《垓下歌》。

  

  此際,這位叱咤風云的人物,竟也流露出兒女情長、英雄氣短的哀嘆。隨侍在側的虞姬,愴然拔劍起舞,并以歌和之:“漢兵已略地,四方楚歌聲;大王意氣盡,賤妾何聊生。”(史稱《復垓下歌》或《和垓下歌》)歌罷自刎,以斷項羽后顧之私情,激項羽奮戰之斗志,希冀勝利突圍。死后葬于垓下。

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