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姜子牙簡介

時間:2013-05-11來源:歷史故事網 作者:

   姜子牙, 姜姓,呂氏,名尚,一名望,字子牙,或單呼牙,也稱呂尚。漢族,生于公元前1156,死于公元前1017年,壽至139歲,先后輔佐了六位周王,因是齊國始祖而稱“太公望”,俗稱姜太公。西周初年,被周文王封為“太師”(武官名),被尊為“師尚父”,輔佐文王,與謀“翦商”。后輔佐周武王滅商。因功封于齊,成為周代齊國的始祖。他是中國歷史上杰出的政治家、軍事家和謀略家。

  

  生平介紹:

  

  姜子牙,姜姓,呂氏,名尚,一名望,字子牙,尊稱太公望,武王尊之號為“師尚父”。商朝末年人。華夏族,東海上人(今莒縣東呂鄉)。據說祖先在舜時為“四岳”之一,曾幫助大禹治水立過功,被封在呂,姜為其族姓。

  

  姜子牙出世時,家境已經敗落了,所以姜子牙年輕的時候干過宰牛賣肉的屠夫,也開過酒店賣過酒,聊補無米之炊。但姜子牙人窮志不短,無論宰牛也好,還是做生意也好,始終勤奮刻苦地學習天文地理、軍事謀略,研究治國安邦之道,期望能有一天為國家施展才華。

  

  雖然他滿腹經綸、才華出眾,但在商朝卻懷才不遇。他已年過六十,滿頭白發,閱歷過人,仍在尋機施展才能與抱負。

  

  姜子牙是齊國的締造者,周文王傾商武王克殷的首席謀主、最高軍事統帥與西周的開國元勛,齊文化的創始人,亦是中國古代的一位影響久遠的杰出的韜略家、軍事家與政治家。

  

  歷代典籍都公認他的歷史地位,儒、道、法、兵、縱橫諸家皆追他為本家人物,被尊為“百家宗師”。姜子牙為炎帝神農氏54世孫,伯夷36世孫。為周文王、武王、成王、康王四代太師,齊王,妻名申姜,共有13子丁、壬、年、奇、枋、紹、駱、銘、青、易、尚、其、佐,女邑姜封周武王妃、皇后。公元前1211年,殷朝庚丁八年已酉年出生于東海上史記。齊太公世家;公元前1072年戊辰年,周康王六年,卒于周首都鎬京,歲壽139歲。

  

  姜子牙半生寒微,擇主不遇,飄游不定,但他能動心忍性,觀察風云,等待時機,終遇明主,輔佐姬昌,修德振武,以求興周。周武王伐紂,太公為軍師,牧野大戰,滅商盛周,立了首功。周初分封,姜子牙被封為齊國君主,他治國有方,創建了泱泱大國,遺風猶存,累世相續,為后來的齊桓公“九合諸侯,一匡天下成為五霸之首”而奠定了基礎。在唐宋以前,姜子牙被歷代皇帝封為武圣,唐肅宗封姜子牙為武成王,宋真宗時,又封姜子牙為昭烈武成王。

  

  到了元朝時期,民間對姜子牙增加了一些神話傳說。到明代萬歷年間,許仲琳創作了《封神演義》小說,從此,姜子牙由人變成了神,并且為民間廣為信奉。

  

  姜子牙一生坎坷多磨而又轟轟烈烈、神秘莫測,確實稱得上是奇人、奇事、奇男子。綜觀太公一生的建樹,無論從軍事、政治、經濟思想等方面,都有卓越貢獻,其中尤以軍事最著,所以太史公言“后世之言兵及周之陰權皆宗太公為本謀”,稱得上兵家之鼻祖,軍事之淵藪。姜子牙是中國歷史上一位全智全能的人物,也是中國文藝舞臺上一位“高、大、全”的形象,還是中國神壇上一位居眾神之上的神主。

  

  作為宗教的神仙,他是武神、智神,被奉為“太公在此,百無禁忌”的護佑神靈。周朝從古公亶父起,就盼望能得到一個圣人,一位武能安邦、文能治國的賢才,來輔助周國實現滅殷興周的任務,所以稱太公為“太公望”,到武王執政時,又以“師尚父”相稱,尊寵權貴無以復加。文王所命太公為“太師”,是西周王朝“三公”中的最高長官,既主軍,也問政。

  

  時有“天下三分,其二歸周者,太公之謀計居多”之言,足見太公在周朝中的地位之重。

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