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周平王為什么拿兒子做人質求原諒?

時間:2018-01-06來源: 作者:

  周朝的政治體制是分封建國的封建制。周天子是天下的共主,同時直接領有王室的土地(王畿),諸侯則受封于周王室,在各自的領地上建立國家。各諸侯國在內政方面有很強的獨立性,平常周天子基本上不予以干涉。但是,在軍事和外交方面,各諸侯國均要聽命于周天子,即所謂的“禮樂征伐自天子出”。除此之外,諸侯國還有對天子進貢和朝覲的義務,如果不按時進貢或朝覲,天子可以“削藩”。對于不服從領導的諸侯國,周天子還可以派兵攻打,同時根據實際情況,號召其他諸侯出兵協助進攻。

  

  周朝的統治者為了確保對大大小小同姓、異姓諸侯國的統治,建立了嚴格的軍制。

  

  按照周朝的軍制,一萬二千五百人為一軍。周天子有六軍,大的諸侯國有三軍,中等諸侯國有二軍,小諸侯國則只有一軍。對于各諸侯國武裝力量的規模,在制度上有明確的規定,以此保證王室相對于諸侯的軍事優勢。

  

  如果犬戎之亂之前,周王室至少看起來仍有那么強大的話,犬戎之亂之后,周平王依靠了秦、鄭、晉等諸侯之力才將都城從鎬京遷到雒邑,實力就明顯下降了。王室喪失了舊關中平原地區廣闊而富饒的土地不說,東遷之初擁有的方圓約六百里的王畿,也隨著賞賜、分封和被外敵侵奪,逐漸縮減至方圓約兩百里左右。以這樣狹窄的土地上的產出,難以維持滿員的六軍。

  

  在這種情況下,周王室很可能還是維持了六軍的編制,但形式重于實質,無論人數還是戰斗力,都大打折扣。號稱六軍,實際上可能只有二軍甚至一軍的戰斗力。而一些逐漸強大起來的諸侯國,即使只維持三軍以下的部隊編制,實際上人數和戰斗力都遠遠超過了表面的規模。

  

  鄭莊公寤生的祖父桓公在周幽王年代擔任了王室司徒一職,莊公的父親武公則在周平王年代擔任了王室卿士。所謂卿士,是王室的首席執政官。

  

  武公死后,莊公繼承了鄭國的君位,同時也繼承了他在周王室的職務,成為了周天子的卿士。

  

  鄭莊公雖然也姓姬,但是作為周平王東遷后出生的一代,他對于周天子基本上沒有什么畏懼之心,對王室也談不上什么感情。所以,首席執政官的位子他占了,人卻總是呆在新鄭治理他的鄭國,很少去打理王室的事務。

  

  他這樣做,和周朝卿士的代表人物周公旦比起來,實在是差得太遠了。周公旦一方面是王室的執政卿士,另一方面則是魯國的第一任君主。但是,為了不辜負周武王的重托,終其一生,他都沒有去魯國享過清福,一心一意撲在王室的工作上,公務繁忙的時候,吃飯洗澡都顧不上(一沐三捉發,一飯三吐哺,說的就是他),成為勤政愛民的楷模。

  

  毫無疑問,周公旦是周朝卿士政治的一座豐碑,周平王不能強求鄭莊公也像周公旦那樣勤于王事,也不能要求鄭莊公像他的祖父鄭桓公那樣以死報國。他的要求很簡單,鄭莊公身為王室的卿士,鄭國又離王室最近,好歹按時到雒邑來點個卯,在表面上維護一下王室的尊嚴。

  

  當然,在維護尊嚴的同時,他還有另外一個很現實的考慮,那就是希望鄭國做個表率,履行向王室進貢的義務。

  

  在周朝強盛的年代,各諸侯國基本能夠按照規定朝覲與進貢;但在周平王東遷之后,王室衰微,王畿面積大大縮水,王室的經濟越來越拮據、越來越依賴于諸侯的進貢,諸侯們反而將自己的義務拋到了爪哇國,進貢的周期越來越長,進貢的物品越來越少,有的甚至根本不來進貢。

  

  周平王并非昏庸的天子。如果與他的父親周幽王相比,他甚至可以說是相當敬業的一位統治者。只不過他生不逢時,從登上王位的第一天,便要直面這個封建王朝有史以來最嚴重的內憂外患。處于這種情況之下,即便是周武王再世,恐怕也難以有所作為吧。

  

  每逢祭祀遠祖的大祭,他總是出神地看著大廟中供奉的列祖列宗的牌位,心里遙想著兩百年前周穆王以沒有按時進貢為由遠征犬戎的故事,難免又想到近在咫尺的鄭國居然已經大半年沒有進貢任何物品,而那個叫寤生的家伙竟然還堂而皇之地擔任著王室的卿士……

  

  “一定要撤掉他在王室的職務。”周平王對親近的朝臣表達了這樣的意思。

  

  朝臣們面面相覷。半晌,有人小聲地說了一句:“那個人可是對自己的親弟弟都下得了手啊!”又有人接著說:“差點連自己的母親都不放過!”

  

  “那就更該將他撤掉,另找有德之人擔任這一要職。”周平王說。

  

  其實,在他心里,已經有一個人選,那就是虢公忌父。

Tags: 周平王
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