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周平王那些不得不說的往事

時間:2018-01-06來源: 作者:

  四十多年前,周幽王因為愛情,所以不怕受傷,在烽火臺上玩火,以引諸侯來救。他還廢掉了申后及太子宜臼,并準備加害太子。

  

  太子宜臼只好逃到外公申侯家。而周幽王不依不饒,起兵攻打申國,無奈之下,申國請來了犬戎進行反擊,本來只是想保衛一下家園,沒想到,周幽王不經打,一打就敗,一敗就崩(犧牲),而申公一不小心就從自衛反擊變成了反攻鎬京。

  

  勝利來得如此突然,那就繼續走下去吧!

  

  史書記載,申侯、魯侯、許文公立平王于申。也就是說,申國、魯國、許國共同扶立平王為周朝新任天子,平王正是太子宜臼。但據后人分析,這里面是夾了私貨的。太子宜臼變成平王不假,申侯跟許文公大力扶持也不假,但魯侯比較冤,他是“被參與”了。

  

  當犬戎之亂時,除了申國、許國之外,還有秦國襄公、晉國文侯、鄭國桓公(姬寤生的爺爺)、衛國武公紛紛前來拯救周幽王,魯國根本沒參與,根本原因是魯國離得比較遠,在交通不發達的春秋,距離是個問題,想參與也趕不上,但申國、許國非要拉上魯國也是有原因的。

  

  魯國是周公旦長子伯禽的封國,在諸國之中,它有一個特殊的職能:掌天子之禮。負責王朝宗正、史官、祭祀等等有關禮儀方面的工作。所以申國、許國硬把魯國拉上,無非是表示這是合乎禮的。但魯國人對禮儀之國這個身份深感自豪,也非常珍惜這份榮譽。他們是斷然不會參與周平王這檔子事的。 因為周平王的天子之位來得不那么合禮。

  

  周平王是殺了父親才登上的王位,就算他是正宗的嫡子,就算他是被冤枉的,就算他是自衛反擊,但他依然是一個弒父殺君者。

  

  鄭國的姬寤生不過請母親搬到鄉下去住,就被國人批評,周平王連父親都殺了,他怎么可以當天子呢?

  

  魯國不但不參與,還一直拒絕承認周平王的合法地位。他們對周平王擅自使用其姓名權的做法也強烈不滿。在他們看來,支持周平王,不如支持另一位。

  

  在申國扶立周平王同時,西虢國立了周朝另一位王子余臣為天子(注意西虢國這一點),史稱周攜王,周平王與周攜王并立的事情在史上稱為二王并立。

  

  這位攜王雖然不是嫡子,但他還是比周平王更具正統性,畢竟人家沒有弒父殺君嘛!

  

  在這場天子對抗中,周平王笑到了最后。他的辦法很簡單,送土地。 故事書里告訴我們,周幽王烽火戲諸侯,拿誠信開玩笑,結果第二次,真的“狼來了”的時候,諸侯國都不來救,事實上,這是錯誤的,明明秦國襄公、晉國文侯、鄭國桓公、衛國武公都帶著兵馬來了嘛! 當然,他們來不是為了再次傾情參演烽火戲諸侯的大戲,更不是為了勤王,他們是為了土地而來。

  

  有一位思想者曾說,所有的政治活動都只有一個最終的目的:土地。周平王特別懂得這個道理,他將黃河西岸的地方給了晉,換來晉國的支持。最后,他的競爭者攜王被晉所滅。 而他將原先被犬戎占去的地方給了秦,說起來,犬戎跟他還是患難兄弟,當初要不是犬戎幫忙,他早就被父親消滅了,但此一時彼一時,當年的太子宜臼已經當了天子,怎么好跟那些吃生食的野人搞到一起。 最后,他支持鄭國滅掉了東虢國,換來了鄭武公的支持。

  

  攜王就沒有這樣大的魄力了,“攜”這個謚號的意思就是怠政外交。不會搞外交工作,等待他的只有失敗。 贏家周平王也不快樂,他將家搬到了洛邑,史學界也習慣將這一年定為春秋之始。

  

  以周平王的想法,大概也是想開創一個新局面,借此拉近與齊、魯、宋等國的關系,可他發現自己并不太受歡迎,這也不奇怪,一來,你分了地給晉、秦、鄭,我們齊、魯、宋又沒占到便宜,憑什么搭理你?二來他身上還背著弒父殺君的政治包袱。

  

  周平王意識到了自己的這個先天缺陷,但在早期,他有著秦、晉、鄭的支持,尤其是鄭武王的大力支持,家里有糧,心中不慌,也就沒有把齊、魯、宋這些老牌大國放在眼里。但隨著鄭武王的去世,新任鄭國國君也就是姬寤生忙著跟弟弟較勁,基本上不管他,導致王室收入下降。更重要的是,周平王年紀越大,越看重名聲。

  

  平心而論,弒父殺君這種事他也不想的,況且又過去了那么多年,但那些姬姓大國老是抓著不放,一直拒絕承認他王位的合法性。這讓他感到很不是滋味。他發現再跟鄭國混下去,經濟上撈不到好處,政治上得不到認可,不如趁早做出改變。

  

  周平王做出的第一個改變,就是提拔西虢國的虢公忌父,表面上看是要分姬姓的權,但實際上是向齊、魯這些大國發出一個強烈的信號。

  

  不要忘了,虢公忌父的父親虢石父是周幽王的死黨,西虢國還曾經立了另一個天子攜王。周平王提拔虢公忌父,等于向齊、魯等大國投了一塊問路石,表示他對當年的事情也十分后悔,認識到了自己的錯誤,對攜王的事情也很抱歉,但事情已經過去了,我愿意改過自新,大家忘掉歷史,展望未來可好?

  

  工于心計的姬寤生第一時間猜到了周平王的小心思,這才火速趕往洛邑,展開外交攻勢,還不顧地位的差異,把人家的王子帶了回來,也就是警告周平王老老實實地待在鄭國的羽翼之下,不要給齊、魯兩國示好。

  

  這樣的舉措,因為周平王跟太子狐雙雙去世宣告失敗。 周平王雖然丟掉了西周的大片土地,但他忍辱負重,終于開創了東周的新局面,使周王室又得以延續下去。現在,他的繼任者周桓王對他棄鄭投齊、魯的政治構思心領神會,一上臺就表現出了高超的政治智慧與非凡的執政勇氣以及細膩的外交手段,不得不讓人嘆服少年可畏。

  

  周桓王不惜暴露家窮,向魯國借錢,無異于向魯國示好。 周王室親自求上門來,魯國人的虛榮心得到了極大的滿足。現在弒父殺君的周平王已經死了,他的孫子是無辜的嘛!況且魯國想認可的攜王都變成灰了,周王室獨此一家,別無分號,你不認可,又能認可誰呢?魯國人繃了這么多年,覺得也挺沒意思的,于是,借著這個臺階,大筆一揮,友情贊助了周平王的喪葬事宜。

  

  收到魯國的贊助費后,周桓王邁出了第二步,準備再次提拔虢公忌父為卿士,這位忌父先生上次跑了路,本打算避兩年,但沒想到周平王崩了,作為長期跟王室保持良好關系的小國,忌父只好硬著頭皮來洛邑參加周平王的追悼會,想著快去快回,周桓王在辦喪事,不會有精力注意他,可沒想到,這位少年天子是搞政治的高手,剛說完節哀順變,忌父就被要求出任卿士。

  

  忌父當場謝絕,上一回拒絕,還是下意識地避險機制起作用,最近他更是想明白了,自己要不要當這個上卿,不僅僅是個人的工作問題,也不是領導的信任問題,而是他已經成了周桓王與鄭君姬寤生,乃至鄭國與齊、魯、宋等國之間政治斗爭的棋子。

  

  拒絕之后,忌父想了很多的說辭,準備應付周桓王的勸說,但奇怪的是,周桓王并沒有像他爺爺那樣細心做他的思想工作,只是淡淡表示,你要是真不愿意,那就算了。

  

  忌父頓時涌起一股莫名的失落感,原來能被當棋子,說明自己還有利用價值,要是連棋子都當不了,才是最無趣的。 而周桓王之所以點到為止,那是他已經達到了目的。他再一次向那些老牌的姬姓大國發出了強烈的信號,這個信號仿佛奧巴馬競爭美國總統時的口號:We Need Change!節摘自《讀懂春秋,就懂了當下》

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