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周平王東遷洛邑:一招不能再失敗的錯誤決策

時間:2018-01-06來源: 作者:

  公元前771年,在位十一年的周幽王終于在內外勾結、里應外合的情況下戰敗于驪山,并被犬戎所殺。他的死直接導致三個結果:第一,印證了他父親生前的那個謠言;第二,他寵愛的美人褒姒也被犬戎虜走了,這個美人的結局如何,史上是不會有人再關注的,誰叫她是紅顏禍水;第三,他的死標志著一個時代的結束,一個新時代的到來。

  

  事實上,幽王之亡國,既不是因為那個謠言,謠言本身透露出來的也許正是王室內部權力斗爭的刀光劍影;也不是因為一個女人,但女人的背后其實聚焦著一個權力的焦點。可惜的是,幽王至死尚不知為何而死,也許他在臨死之前也和后人一樣,會感嘆非吾之罪,乃天意也。他哪里知道,他身邊早就有人在算計著他的位子和權力。他雖然有罪,但從史籍記載來看,好色的幽王怎么都比不過他那殘虐的祖父厲王,厲王的殘暴到了國人道路以目的地步,尚且不過遭到流放的下場,為什么幽王卻獲得了比乃祖嚴重十倍以至于身死國亡的下場呢?謠言也好,烽火也罷,只不過是后人為了掩飾這一切而施放的煙幕,撇開這煙幕,明眼人一看就知道是假的,只是由于這煙幕太曲折太誘人了,幾千年來人們寧愿沉迷于其間。

  

周平王東遷洛邑

  幽王死后,他原來的太子宜臼在申侯的擁戴下繼天子位,他就是周平王。另一派勢力以虢公翰為代表擁立王子余臣在攜地繼天子位,史稱攜王。應該說,幽王死后,周朝并未滅亡,犬戎畏于諸侯的實力,很快就撤兵了。可是歷史上為什么要說周朝滅亡了呢?新王即位為什么要遷都洛邑呢?

  

  讀這段歷史,我曾多次涌上這樣一種疑問,申侯為什么不借助中原其它諸侯國之力來造反,卻偏偏選擇與中原諸國共同的敵人犬戎相勾結呢?要知道,在當時,不管怎么樣,“非我族類,其心必異”這一夷夏之大防的觀念始終是堅如磐石,不可撼動的。這一舉動,無論如何是不得人心的。為什么呢?我想唯一的理由就是申侯等人的舉動是得不到中原諸侯國的支持的,他想要造反,只有借助于別的力量。這也許正是人們要把平王之后的周稱為東周的諦奧所在,更是平王東遷之后得不到廣大諸侯國的支持和擁護,王室迅速衰落的諦奧所在。

  

  事實上,幽王死后,周朝并沒有滅亡。一方面,驪山一役,雖然以幽王身死宣告結束,但周天子管轄下的各諸侯國依然存在,沒有傷筋動骨,只要他們團結起來,實力依然十分強大,對付一區區犬戎是小菜一碟,不在話下。另一方面,幽王的繼承人隨即在公元前770年繼位,周祀得以延續,甚至出現了兩個周王。

  

  太史公司馬遷作《史記》時也并沒有說當時有兩個周朝,平王之前為西周,平王之后為東周。那么歷史上西周東周之分,又是怎么來的呢?簡單地說,那是后世歷史學者為研究方便起見而劃分的。這就造成一種誤會,其實,滅亡的只是后世歷史學家眼中的西周,真正的周并沒有滅亡。

  

  那么,平王即位之后,為什么要東遷呢?

  

  我分析,有這么幾個原因:

  

  一,平王東遷是諸侯國分裂的標志。史書所載平王東遷大都略而不詳,只說“平王立,東遷于洛邑”。至于為什么要遷都,也是語焉不詳。《史記》說是“辟戎寇”。這當然是事實,但堂堂一個大國,為什么對付不了犬戎呢?

  

  我們不得不來看看犬戎。戎是周人對分布在周人西方民族的稱呼,稱北方的民族則稱狄。有時又混稱西北方民族為戎或狄。這些民族在殷商之時,就成為勁敵,史載武丁征北方的鬼方,歷三百多次征戰,三年才得以平定;到了周,其北方還有鬼方和嚴狁,一說嚴狁就是犬戎,經常騷擾邊境。所以《詩經》中就有“靡室靡家,嚴狁之故。不遑啟居,嚴狁之故”,都表明嚴狁對周民族構成了強大的威脅。但周建立之前,周文王就是靠征伐西戎起家的,因而,穆王之時,“犬戎氏以其職來王”;但到了周穆王后期,犬戎就不再來朝,于是有了西征犬戎之戰,這一次戰爭以“獲其五王,又得四白鹿,四白狼”結束,犬戎被遷到太原(現在的甘肅平涼一帶);周宣王時又多次出擊嚴狁,并多次大敗他們。但宣王后期,兵伐太原,竟然“不克”,此后多次以王師敗績結束。但王師失敗,并不表明犬戎不可戰勝,史載晉侯就曾大敗犬戎于汾水。這說明,只要周王朝團結起來,犬戎不過構成一種威脅,尚不至于那么可怕。錢穆先生也指出:“《史記》不知其間曲折,謂‘平王避犬戎東遷’,犬戎助平王殺父,乃友非敵,不必避也。”

  

  事實上,幽王被殺是申侯與犬戎合謀之作,周平王是申侯的外甥,所以申侯實為外甥弒君奪位。許國與申國同姓,也參與立平王,也應是同謀。對申侯和周平王而言,犬戎是友非敵,平王東遷根本不是什么“避犬戎”,而是申侯、犬戎、周平王之間分臟的結果。所以說,如果一定要說等到王室為避犬戎而“被迫”遷都之時,也就意味著周天子及其所轄諸侯國開始分裂,不能共同抗擊外敵侵略了。

  

  公元前770年,周平王在秦襄公、晉文侯、鄭武公、衛武公的帶兵護送下東遷洛邑(現在的洛陽)。稍后,攜王在虢公的支持下也稱王,形成對立分裂之勢。

  

  二,平王東遷并非不得己,我的估計,極有可能還有這幾個諸侯國的要求。公元前771年說到底是一場內亂,戰爭隨著幽王之死和犬戎的西歸而告結束,雖然給首都造成了不可挽回的破壞與損失,但犬戎的目的并不是要滅你周國,而是為了掠財。再說畢竟那是王室經營了數百年之久的基地,比起雒邑那塊新的處女地,誰更適合做都城,一眼便了。

  

  三,平王東遷與當時的東遷潮有關。前面講過,幽王繼位之初,即發生了川竭山崩的天災,在當時的天命觀念下,這便是“天不吊周”。因而,包括周的貴族在內,人們想想方設法逃避這場大災難。這個時候,以鄭國的東遷最為典型。

  

  本來,鄭國是在現在的陜西華縣一帶,這里是屬于周王畿之內。鄭國的開國之君是周桓王之弟,時任周司徒的鄭桓公。這是一個深得民心的重臣,連他都因為“王室多故”,而心生逃避之念。

  

  史載,他向太史伯陽父請教“其何所可以逃死”,伯陽父指點他設法逃往中原的濟、洛、河、穎一帶,這一帶就是虢國和鄶國轄地。于是鄭桓公便聽從伯陽父的指點,“乃東寄孥與賄,虢、鄶受之,十邑皆有寄地”。《國語·鄭語》和《史記》都記載有這件事。不過,鄭桓公的東遷逃命并不是為了自己,而是為了鄭國的百姓,因而,兩年后,發生了犬戎之禍,鄭桓公與幽王一同在驪山被犬戎所殺,而他國內的百姓卻躲過了戰亂。

  

  鄭國東遷后,在現在的河南新鄭建都,當時的新鄭可謂是一塊新的土地,有待開發。《左傳》昭公十六年,鄭國大夫子產回憶說:“昔我先君桓公與商人,皆出自周,庸次比耦以艾殺此地,斬之蓬蒿藜藿,而共處之。”可見其開發之艱難。

  

  除鄭國以外,楊寬先生還通過對周原考古發現的窖藏特點的研究,指出,這些窖藏都是原先居住在周原的大小貴族為了臨時避難而埋藏的。與鄭桓公類似的是另一個周卿士皇父,這是一個為非作惡的大臣,他為了把搜括來的財賄保護好,也在中原地區建立新的城市,《詩經·十月之交》一詩就諷刺了他的做法。可見,在當時的情勢下,周貴族的大量東遷,勢必帶動平民百姓的東遷,東遷成了當時的一個大趨勢。

  

  楊寬先生說得好,周貴族與平民的東遷,一方面加劇了周王室的崩潰,另一方面也催動了中原的開發。平王東遷就是在這種背景之下進行的。說到底,平王東遷還是申侯等貴族為了能夠進一步控制天子而采取的積極措施。他們并沒有去思考復國,更多的是想著自己的利益。平王東遷對諸如鄭武公在內的幾個熱心諸侯無疑帶來了不少好處。鄭國早就遷到了中原,讓天子隨之東遷,有利于控制天子;秦穆公本就是幽王之世內亂的最大受益者,東遷后,王室丟下的土地,后來都成了秦國的屬地,故穆公何樂不為?晉衛等國同樣出于這種心態,而積極派兵保護。自王室東遷之后,即公元前770年至前707年長達六十多年的時間里,周王室就主要依靠晉、鄭兩國的支持和保護。《左傳》所說“我周之東遷,晉鄭是依”,其實質應該反過來說,是“王室是依”。

  

  接下來的問題就是:為什么平王東遷之后,王室會衰落得那么快呢?其中有一個根本的原因就在于,另一部分諸侯對幽王之死和平王的即位與東遷心有懷疑,甚至不滿。從某種意義上來說,就是幽王罪不當死,平王繼位不正,周平王的合法性甚至都受到諸侯的質疑。

  

  自此以后,莫怪諸侯對王室不恭,實應是這場內亂所導致的惡果所致。《詩經》“王風”中有一首《揚之水》,寫的就是被周平王派遣到申、甫、許等國駐守的周兵,不滿與怨思:“彼其之子,不與我戍申(甫、許)”,士兵們埋怨,為什么申、甫、許國的人不來和我們一起站崗放哨呢?名義上是防止楚國入侵周之門戶,實際是替平王的母家當看門狗。

  

  這就是東遷的內幕。東遷的最大后果,就是直接導致了周王室國力的進一步衰微,從此以后,王室再也無力西顧,以至于后來王室大臣出差來到周之故都,見到禾黍離離,不禁悲從中來,不可自禁。不僅王室從此一蹶不振,就連此后的周天子從此都要受制于人,周天子名為天下共主,實際上淪落到還不如一個諸侯國君的地步。

  

  一句話,平王東遷,實是無可奈何的周平王的一著臭棋,每每讀到這里,筆者心里總感慨萬分:這一遷,真是歷史不能承受之變!

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