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北宋怎么過元旦?放假七天盛況壯觀

時間:2017-12-30來源:歷史故事網 作者: 佚名

  【北宋怎么過元旦?放假七天盛況壯觀】中國元旦歷來指的是農(夏、陰)歷正月初一。元是“初”、“始”的意思,旦指“日子”,元旦合稱即是“初始的日子”,也就是一年的第一天。在漢語各地語言中有不同叫法,有叫“大年初一”的,有叫“大天初一”的,有叫“年初一”的,一般又叫“正月初一”。

北宋放假七天盛況壯觀

  元旦,《書·舜典》中叫“元日”,漢代崔瑗《三子釵銘》中叫“元正”;晉代庾闡《揚都賦》中稱作“元辰”;北齊時的一篇《元會大享歌皇夏辭》中呼為“元春”;唐德宗李適《元日退朝觀軍仗歸營》詩中謂之“元朔”。我國歷代元旦的月日并不一致。夏代在正月初一,商代在十二月初一,周代在十一月初一,秦始皇統一六國后,又以十月初一日為元旦,自此歷代相沿未改(《史記》)。漢武帝太初元年時,司馬遷創立了“太初歷”,這才又以正月初一為元旦,和夏代規定一樣,所以又稱“夏歷”,一直沿用到辛亥革命。中華民國建立,孫中山為了“行夏正,所以順農時;從西歷,所以便統計”,定正月初一(元旦)為春節,而以西歷(公歷)一月一日為新年。

  

  我國歷史上就有過元旦的習俗,而南北兩宋時期的元旦更是舉國歡度的盛大節日。北宋一代名相王安石就曾寫下《元日》一詩:“爆竹聲中一歲除,春風送暖入屠蘇。千門萬戶曈曈日,總把新桃換舊符。”當時,過元旦就有了貼春聯的習俗。南宋詩人陸游的《已酉元旦》詩中說:“夜雨解殘雪,朝陽開積陰,桃符呵筆寫,椒酒過花斜。”另一位南宋詩人宋伯仁的《歲旦》詩也說:“居間無賀客,早起只如常,桃板隨人換,梅花隔歲香。”這些詩中的“桃符”、“桃板”即指春聯。可見,當時過元旦就像如今過春節一樣紅火熱鬧。

  

  但是,當時的元旦是農歷正月初一,這天稱為元旦,也稱元日、正旦、元正、歲朝、年朝等。元旦是一年之始,宋代學者吳自牧在《夢粱錄》中說:“正月朔日(初一),謂之元旦,俗稱為新年。”當時,不論是官方還是民間,都視之為大節日。宋代另一位學者王楙的《野客叢書》中說:“國家官私以冬至、元正(元旦)、寒食……為大節日,七日假。”也就是說,北宋時期的“元旦”相當于現在的春節,當時國家的“假日辦”要發出通知,給“上班族”放假七天。

  

  據有關史料記載,每當元旦來臨,在北宋的京都汴梁城內,宮廷里要舉行大規模的朝會,皇帝要受百官的朝賀,人們稱之為“排正仗”。此時,常有遼、高麗、西夏、于闐、回紇等地的外交官前來朝賀。孟元老在《東京夢華錄》中說:“大遼大使頂金冠,后檐尖長,如大蓮葉,服紫窄袍,金蹀躞;副使展裹金帶,如漢服。大使拜則立左足,跪右足,以兩手著右肩為一拜。副使拜如漢儀。……回紇皆長髯高鼻,以匹帛纏頭,散披其服。于闐皆小金花氈笠、金絲戰袍、束帶,并妻男同來,乘駱駝,氈兜銅鐸入貢。其中遼使臣朝見完畢,翌日要到相國寺燒香,次日于南御苑射箭,朝廷選善射武臣伴射。伴射得勝,京師市井兒攔路爭獻口號,觀者如堵。”可見當時京城里過元旦時萬國來朝的盛況之壯觀。www.xz877.com

  

  元旦這天的清晨,京城內外的家家戶戶都要早早起床,梳洗打扮,穿上新衣,走親訪友,相互祝福,把酒相慶。因此,王安石在的《元日》詩中說:“爆竹聲中一歲除,春風送暖入屠蘇。”詩中所說的“屠蘇”,指的是元旦這一天專飲的多味藥酒,古人認為飲此酒可以防病消災。飲此酒有個規矩,老少不能同時共飲,而是從年幼者依次而來。因為按古人理解,每逢新年,雖然每人都要增壽,但實際上年少者得了一歲,而年長者卻失了一歲,所以大家勸年少者先飲,以示祝賀,而讓年長者后飲,以避忌諱。

  

  北宋過元旦,百姓可以放開參加賭博活動。從元旦這天開始,朝廷準許百姓可以在三天中參與關撲游戲。所謂“關撲”,是一種帶有賭博性質的游戲,參與游戲的雙方約定好價格,用銅錢在瓦罐內或地上擲,根據錢的字幕的多少來判定輸贏,贏的人可折錢取走所撲的物品,輸的人要付錢。關撲可以賭得很大,車馬、地宅、歌姬、舞女,都可以作為賭資。

  

  “關撲”簡潔明了,在當時的民間非常盛行。但只有像元旦這樣大的節日,官府才允許“關撲”開放,一般以食物、日常器具、果實、柴炭之類來賭。元旦之夜,有錢人家的女子或入場觀賭,或入店飲宴,《東京夢華錄》中說,這種事情“慣習成風,不相笑訝”。

  

  北宋時期的元旦假日,京城的許多繁華街道上都要結彩棚,擺放帽子、梳子、珠翠、首飾、衣著、花朵、領抹、靴鞋、玩具之類的商品,還有舞場歌館,車馬來往,絡繹不絕。同時,當時也有許多飲食習俗,比如,大部分家庭要吃素餅。《東京夢華錄》中說:“(元旦的開封)皆煎術湯以飲之,并燒蒼術,又辟除疫癘之氣。”許多人家還“用柏一枝、柿一枚、橘一枚,就中擘開,眾分食之,以為一歲百事吉之兆。”由此不難看出,北宋的元旦真是到處洋溢著節日的氣氛,非常熱鬧。南宋時期,朝廷雖然偏安江南,但是,歡度元旦的熱鬧程度并不亞于北宋時期。

Tags: 北宋 元旦
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