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朱元璋簡介

時間:2016-11-29來源:歷史故事網 作者: admin
朱元璋簡介

 

  大明太祖高皇帝朱元璋(1328年10月21日-1398年6月24日),字國瑞。原名重八,后取名興宗。漢族,濠州鐘離人,明朝開國皇帝。

  朱元璋幼時貧窮,曾為地主放牛。1344年(元至正四年),入皇覺寺,25歲時參加郭子興領導的紅巾軍反抗元朝,1356年(至正十六年)被部下諸將奉為吳國公。同年,攻占集慶路,將其改為應天府。1368年(至正二十八年)朱元璋擊破各路農民起義軍后,在應天府稱帝,國號大明,年號洪武。后結束了蒙元在中原的統治,平定四川、廣西、甘肅、云南等地,最終統一中國。

  朱元璋在位期間,下令農民歸耕,獎勵墾荒;大搞移民屯田和軍屯;組織各地農民興修水利;大力提倡種植桑、麻、棉等經濟作物和果木作物、他還徒富民,抑豪強;下令解放奴婢;減免稅負,嚴懲貪官;派人到全國各地丈量土地,清查戶口等等。經過洪武時期的努力,社會生產逐漸恢復和發展了,史稱洪武之治。1380年(洪武十三年),朱元璋廢丞相,設承宣布政使司、提刑按察使司、都指揮使司三司分掌權力,進一步的加強了中央集權。

  1398年(洪武三十一年),朱元璋病逝于應天,享年71歲,廟號太祖,謚號開天行道肇紀立極大圣至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝。葬南京明孝陵。

  朱元璋聰明而有遠見,神威英武,收攬英雄,平定四海,納諫如流,求賢若渴,重農桑,興禮樂,褒節義,崇教化,制定的各種法規都很相宜。自古以來,前所未有。但是他的性格嚴明,晚年偏好誅殺,使得一代開國元勛很少有善始善終的,這就是朱元璋的缺點。

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