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明成祖朱棣簡介

時間:2014-11-10來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  大明成祖朱棣(1360年5月2日-1424年8月12日),漢族,是明朝第三位皇帝,1402年-1424年在位,在位22年,年號永樂,故后人稱其為永樂帝、永樂大帝、永樂皇帝等。

  

  元順帝至正二十年(1360年)四月十七日(5月2日),朱棣生于應天府(今南京)。早起被封為燕王,洪武三十一年十二月,為了提防朱棣造反,建文帝朱允炆派工部侍郎張昺為北平布政使,都指揮使謝貴、張信為北平都指揮使。隨后又命都督宋忠屯兵駐開平,并調走北平原屬燕王管轄的軍隊。后發動靖難之役,起兵攻打建文帝。

  

  1402年在南京登基,改元永樂。

  

  朱棣在位期間改革機構,設置內閣制度,對外五次親征蒙古,收復安南(交趾),在東北設立奴兒干都司、西北設立哈密衛,在西南貴州等地區建立行省行政區劃,鞏固了南北邊防,維護了中國版圖的統一與完整。

  

  多次派鄭和下西洋,加強了中外友好往來。

  

  同時還命人編修《永樂大典》,疏浚大運河。

  

  1421年遷都北京,對強化明朝統治起到了非常積極的作用。在位期間將由靖難之后的瘡痍局面發展至經濟繁榮、國力強盛的盛世,史稱“永樂盛世”。

  

  朱棣駕崩后謚號體天弘道高明廣運圣武神功純仁至孝文皇帝,廟號太宗,葬于明長陵。www.xz877.com

  

  嘉靖十七年(1538年)九月,明世宗改謚為啟天弘道高明肇運圣武神功純仁至孝文皇帝,改上廟號為成祖。

  

  《明史·成祖本紀》曰“雄武之略,同符高祖。六師屢出,漠北塵清。至其季年,威德遐被,四方賓服,受朝命入貢者殆三十國。幅隕之廣,遠邁漢唐。成功駿烈,卓乎盛矣”。

  

  評價

  

  明成祖朱棣文武全才,寬嚴并濟,知人善任,讒間不行,用兵應變,機智神勇。郡縣有遇到災害的,就免租賑災,榮受直言,保全功臣。外國受封之國多達三十余個,國勢極盛!唯獨對建文帝忠臣處理過狠,不能說是沒有遺憾的。

 

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