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明英宗朱祁鎮:史上最忘恩負義的皇帝

時間:2014-02-07來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  說起這位明英宗朱祁鎮,真是好有一比:在北京高峰時段開車——-生不完的氣。

  

  先說年號問題,明朝皇帝,在位時間再長,年號也只有一個,惟獨他特殊,在位總共不過十五年,年號卻有兩個,前一個叫正統,后一個叫天順。倒不是因為他非要搞特權,兩個年號之間,是由一大串可氣的事穿起來的。

  

  先說正統朝,差不多是地球人都知道的,這么多的忠良干才他不信任,偏寵信一個教書先生出身的太監王振,一干閹黨把國家禍害得烏煙瘴氣。后來瓦刺犯邊,忠臣良將的苦勸不聽,偏聽死太監攛掇,非要御架親征,帶著幾十萬人牛氣哄哄出了長城,按說既然親征你就好好打啊,他不,走到半道又后悔了,連敵人影都沒見著撤兵,撤兵么撤得快點啊,跑還沒跑成,讓人家圍在土木堡包了餃子,稀里糊涂一場混戰,幾十萬大軍全死光,連本人都當了俘虜,丟人到如此,不是可氣么。

  

  他被抓到蒙古高原上去啃生羊肉了,爛帳總要有人收拾,皇帝讓人綁了,敵人打到家門口了,總不成學宋朝來個衣冠南渡吧,還好有他親弟弟給他收拾,弟弟朱祁鈺繼承帝位,改年號為景泰,可氣的正統朝總算結束了。景泰帝信用良臣于謙,成功組織北京保衛戰打垮敵人,再運用外交壓力,逼得瓦刺把英宗放回來當太上皇,總算不用學宋徽宗那樣客死他鄉。作騰半天,祖宗江山差點丟了不說,皇位也作騰沒了,這樣的鬧劇,不怪他自己么。

  

  雖是傻事敗事一籮筐,但傻人總算有傻福,雖說皇位沒了,命還是保住了,回來舒舒服服過太上皇的日子倒也不錯,可他不消停,拉幫結派培植私人勢力,幾年后趁著弟弟病重搞了場“奪門之變”。奪回了皇位不說,上臺第一件事就是殺掉了功臣于謙。并把當初北京保衛戰的功臣們來了個大清洗,掌握朝政大權的全是如徐有貞,石亨,曹吉祥這樣的奸險小人。雖然過了沒幾年,這幾個人也被明英宗清算,下獄的下獄(石亨),充軍的充軍(徐有貞),被殺的被殺(曹吉祥),可明朝的政治氣象,怎一個烏煙瘴氣了得。

  

  皇位奪回來了,自然就要改年號。于是,明英宗改年號為天順。從正統年到天順年,打敗仗,殺忠良,寵小人,亂國家,盡是他辦的敗事,每每讀史到此,不知有多少人氣得直哆嗦。

  

  可正統朝的事畢竟年頭遠了,真正給后世攢下麻煩的,是天順朝。

  

  “天順”么,字面意思講,自然有風調雨順的意思。從這個意義上說,“天順”朝時代的明朝,運氣還真不壞,別的且不說,單說綁過明英宗票的瓦刺,那在土木堡創下擊敗明朝幾十萬大軍,活捉明朝皇帝偉業的瓦刺首領也先,沒死在大對頭明朝手里,倒在內戰中被一刀砍死。到了天順朝時期,瓦刺又和鄰居韃靼打個不停,因此,雖然少了良將于謙,但終天順一朝的邊境形勢,還總算是太平無事。

  

  邊境無事,關起門來搞建設也不錯,老百姓么,要的不就是個太平日子?可天順朝的事,卻真個不太平。先是擁立英宗復位的三員猛將:大學士徐有貞,武將石亨,太監曹吉祥,相互之間先干起仗來,拉幫結派,你爭我搶,最后相繼敗亡,雖說沒惹什么大禍,可從天順初年到天順五年,這幫人來回折騰,至于國家建設之類的正事,那是顧不上了。

  

  按說官場斗爭,小人得志,盛世也好,衰世也好,都算是尋常事。封建時代,只要有明君坐鎮,因勢利導,非但惹不出什么麻煩,搞好了也能有個國泰民安呢,至于當時的皇帝明英宗朱祁鎮嘛…………

  

  朱祁鎮這人,饒是辦了這個多傻事,可你要說他是昏君,還真有點冤枉他了。

  

  就拿土木堡之變來說,御架親征被抓了俘虜,進了蒙古人的戰俘營,按說夠丟人了,可他不,當囚徒還當出水平來了,日子沒多久,從蒙古人的看守,到那些跟他打過交道的許多蒙古將軍,甚至到瓦刺首領也先的弟弟伯顏,全和他成了好朋友,一個個對他死心塌地。甚至那位伯顏將軍,多次為了放不放他回國的問題竟然和親哥哥也先吵得臉紅脖子粗。到了他被接回京城,伯顏將軍親自相送,一直走了幾十里才灑淚而別。這份凝聚力,哪象個昏君,分明是明君的氣度么

  

  再說到個人私生活問題,朱祁鎮和他的正宮錢皇后,真稱得上中國歷史上一對有名的患難夫妻,他被抓到蒙古的時候,錢皇后哭壞了眼睛,把身上所有值錢的東西都搜羅出來送到蒙古那邊去贖他。為了說服朝臣迎回英宗,她以死相爭,結果摔瘸了腿。到了朱祁鎮被放回來后,兩人被幽禁在南宮,生活困苦,更是靠錢皇后紡紗賣錢,貼補家用。錢皇后情深,朱祁鎮也專情,重登皇位以后,對錢皇后依舊禮遇有加,夫妻恩愛一生,既能共患難又能共安樂,這份模范,別說是皇帝,就是今天那些一夜暴富的款爺們,能做到的又有幾個?

  

  氣度不凡,人品也不差,智商問題呢?你不能不承認,辦過這么多錯事的朱祁鎮,有時候讓你聰明的難以置信。被囚禁瓦刺的時候,他身邊的太監喜寧反了水,投奔到蒙古人門下當了漢奸,日日出壞主意,幾次都差點置他于死地。可朱祁鎮絕,騙瓦刺說自己給大明寫親筆信,要大明接受瓦刺的要求。條件只有一個:叫喜寧去送信。等著喜寧樂顛顛的進了大明地界,早已準備好的明軍將士一擁而上,將其五花大綁,不久就碎尸萬段。原來,朱祁鎮暗地派隨從跟著喜寧,并給大明邊關將領送去了要擒殺喜寧的親筆信。一張紙條就解決了問題,這份聰明,你能說他糊涂?

  

  再就是后來奪皇位,一夜之間取代了自己的弟弟重坐了江山,還有天順年間,石亨,徐有貞,曹吉祥三位權臣相繼亂政,朱祁鎮拉一個打一個,不出幾年就將他們一一收拾掉。這種人,說他是糊涂蟲?那任誰都不信。

  

  另外,他在位的時候也做過一些好事,最著名的當屬“優老之政”。規定全國百姓,有七十歲以上的老人,政府每年發放糧食錢帛,九十歲以上的加倍供給。六十五歲以上的老人,可免服官府差役。這大概是算得上世界上最早的“國家福利政策”了。如此看,這位皇帝大人,還是很有人情味的。

  

  可說到底,他真不是個好皇帝。聰明也好,專情也好,他獨獨欠缺一樣大智慧--治國。

  

  治國就象下棋,黑白交錯,恩威并施,要的是統籌把握全局的能耐,是切中要點問題的大謀略。朱祁鎮聰明不假,可那都是小聰明,善良也不假,可也都是小恩惠,真正可以讓國家富強的大智慧,他是最欠缺的。所謂黑貓白貓,抓住耗子是好貓,昏君賢君,治好了國家是明君,那些個他身上的種種“美德”,放到評價皇帝身上,除了增加點“八卦”外,統統白搭。(本文摘自:《被遺忘的盛世》,作者:張嵚。

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