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中國古代皇后如何選立?

時間:2016-03-23來源:歷史故事網 作者:
中國古代皇后如何選立?

  后宮佳麗三千,只有皇帝的正妻稱為“皇后”,為一國之母,所以要有母儀天下的風范,這是歷朝歷代選擇皇后的重要標準,但每個朝代又有細微的差別,比如明朝選后大多從民間選,而唐朝、清朝選后則要從名門望族中挑選。皇后人選一旦確定,就不能輕易更改。歷史上,無數后宮女子為皇后之位爭得頭破血流。

  

  “后”字的來源

  

  皇后掌管六宮,是后宮之首,跟皇帝平起平坐,被稱為“國母”。后來,這套體制隨著朝代的更迭而變化,也更趨于完整。然而,在奴隸社會形成的最初階段,皇后的“后”字卻并不是指后宮之首,而是用在君主身上。比如《左傳》中記載:“龍一雌死,潛酷以食夏后,夏后饗之。”其中的夏后指的夏王,而不是夏王的妻子。《尚書·湯誓》中有“我后不恤我眾”,“后”指商湯。

  

  直到東周,“后”字才被用在君主正妻身上。《禮記》中有“天子之妃曰后”,“后之言后,言在夫之后也”,意思是天子的配偶被稱為后,是因為其地位在丈夫之后。又有“天曰皇天,地曰后土,故天子之妃,以后為稱,取象二儀”。

  

  以皇后為中心的后宮制度始于秦朝。秦始皇統一中國后,正式以皇帝自稱,并確立皇帝的正妻為皇后的后妃制度。隨著后宮制度的逐漸完善,到了西漢,便順應產生了皇太后、太皇太后等稱號。

  

  在皇權至高無上思想的統治下,皇后成為天下所有女人的表率和榜樣。而且,皇后管理著后宮所有嬪妃、宮人,握有賞罰、生殺大權,負責維持后宮秩序。與此同時,皇后還承擔者規勸皇帝,監督皇帝后宮行為的職責。因此,選出一位合適的皇后,是整個國家的大事。這也是為什么很多皇帝在選后一事上不能隨心所欲,要聽從大臣、皇太后等人的意見的原因。

  

  清朝建立之初,努爾哈赤賦予了皇后更崇高的職責和權力。他明確表示,后世子孫不能因為迷戀后妃而荒廢國事,凡是違背者,皇后都可以進行勸諫,并實行相應的強制手段。當然,這里的強制手段是針對嬪妃,而不是皇帝。《清史》上提及,如果有哪一位皇帝沉迷于某位后妃,導致不勤政務,那么皇后就會讓內監在寢宮外讀祖訓,而皇帝在屋內必須下跪聽訓。如果屢教不改,皇后就會動用大權,懲罰后妃,輕則杖責,重則處死。清朝皇帝大多十分勤奮,大概也跟這嚴苛的后宮制度有關。

  

  除了統領后宮、規勸皇帝之外,皇后還有一項無比重要的職責,就是在皇帝去世、繼承人尚未選出的時候挑選繼承人,掌握廢立大權,并在需要的時候幫助新君熟悉政務。這樣一來,歷史上便出現了手執國家大權的皇后,比如西漢的呂后、唐朝的武則天、清朝的慈禧,等等。

  

  國母的選立

  

  皇后在一個國家扮演著“半邊天”的角色,所以皇后的選立也有著十分嚴格的制度。一般來說,皇帝登基之后要立即冊封皇后。當然,并不是所有皇帝都是登基之后才有正妻。不少皇帝還是太子的時候就有了太子妃,只要到了結婚年齡,皇室自然會為其選擇一位正妻。等到登基之后,太子妃自然晉升為皇后。不過這也有前提,就是太子妃沒有犯過重大錯誤,沒有被廢。www.xz877.com

  

中國古代皇后如何選立?

  如果皇后被罷黜或死亡,皇帝就要立即選出新的皇后。這也直接造成了后宮嬪妃為了登上后位而互相傾軋,于是便有了一幕幕驚心動魄的宮斗大戲。不過也有一些皇帝在皇后死后不再立后,比如朱元璋在馬皇后去世后心灰意冷,不再立后。乾隆皇后烏喇那拉氏死后,大臣們上書要求再立新后,但是乾隆認為后宮之中沒有合適的皇后人選,索性不再立后。

  

  不難看出,皇后的選立是個十分謹慎的過程。如果沒有合適的人選,皇帝寧愿不立后。

  

  一般情況下,皇后大多都是權貴、宗親之女,出身名門,知書達理。但是在西漢時期,不少皇后都出身低微,比如漢武帝皇后衛子夫原本是平陽公主府中的婢女,漢成帝之后趙飛燕是舞姬出身。到了東漢時期,皇后的出身才被刻意重視起來。雖然沒有明文規定,但是挑選名門之后,已經成了選擇皇后的默認條件之一。從此之后,歷朝歷代的皇后甄選,都會以名門望族為先。比如唐朝二十多位皇后之中,七成以上出于三品以上高官之家,而且祖上不是宗親就是權臣。像唐高祖和唐睿宗的皇后,其祖上都是北周、隋朝時期的望族。唐太宗的皇后長孫氏,其家族成員也是從北朝開始就位居要職。宋朝亦是如此,皇后人選大多集中在將相之家。

  

  到了明朝,由于開國皇帝朱元璋出身卑微,所以在皇后選立方面,并沒有挑剔出身,反而有時會故意選擇一些出身平凡的百姓女子為后。明朝皇帝認為,百姓女子從小生活艱苦,不會嬌慣任性,而且性格堅強,懂得感恩。這樣的女子成為皇后,必然會珍惜身邊一切事物,不會驕奢淫逸,不會暴殄天物。更重要的是,百姓女子來自民間,深知民間生活之苦樂,可以對皇帝起到很好的勸諫作用。于是,明朝后宮的秀女大多都是庶人,鮮有達官貴人之后。

  

  值得一提的是,明朝皇后的冊立,都是由皇太后親自過問。選擇秀女的時候,皇太后會在幔帳之后觀察、考驗,凡是選中的秀女,就在臂上系上特定的手釧,沒有選中的,就給些銀兩讓其回家。

  

  不管皇后出身如何,通情達理、賢德聰慧都是必備的條件。盡管歷史上出現過不少道德敗壞、工于心計的皇后,但大多數皇后都是安分守己、循規蹈矩的。

  

  皇后的權威

  

  封建社會等級森嚴,皇后的地位不容僭越,極力保證皇后在后宮中有足夠的權威。這個規定從商朝以來就存在。商朝后妃已經有嫡庶之別,嫡妻地位最高,庶室地位再高也不能超越嫡妻。而且那時候雖然沒有明文規定嫡妻之子繼位,但幾乎都是以后妃地位的高低來選擇太子。

  

  在后宮之中,皇后就是最高權力的代表,她不僅是后宮之長,更是整個王朝的半個權力象征。因此所有嬪妃,無論是否受寵,見到皇后都要行君臣之禮。每到節慶,所有嬪妃都要向皇后請安祝賀。如果有嬪妃無視皇后權威,或者有僭越之嫌,皇后就有權利進行處罰。這種等級制度不僅是由皇后來維持,朝中大臣也都是維系者。即使皇后之位空缺,后宮嬪妃也要安分守己,如有越禮者試圖一步登天,大臣們也會出面聲討。

  

  明光宗時期曾有個李選侍,因為受明光宗恩寵而飛揚跋扈,妄圖登上后位。但是礙于臣子們的反對,李選侍不敢光明正大要求封后。明光宗去世后,李選侍便借機住在乾清宮,怎么都不肯走。乾清宮是皇帝和皇后住的地方,皇帝一死,新君就要入住。李選侍住在里邊,即將登基的皇長子朱由校就無法入住。

  

  無奈之下,大臣們只好搬出禮法,稱乾清宮是內廷正殿,只有皇后有資格陪伴天子同居,李選侍既不是朱由校的生母,又不是嫡妻,怎么能住在乾清宮,禮法何在,名分何在?但是李選侍依舊無動于衷,她要當的不僅是皇后,還是垂簾聽政的“呂后”,左右朝堂的“武則天”。大臣們只能不斷上書,彈劾李選侍,稱“世間烏有天子遜宮人之禮,且此乾清宮,自祖宗相傳是天子之居。即圣母在上,當居坤寧宮。太后居慈寧宮。選侍何人,而居乾清官不移耶”。李選侍最后還是抵抗不住如此強大的禮制壓力,搬出了乾清宮。

  

  其實大臣們如此竭力維護禮法,就是為了維護皇后的權威,就是要告訴后妃,不是任何人都有資格當皇后。這樣一來,皇后在管理后宮方面會更加容易、得力。后宮一旦井然有序,皇帝也自然會多放些心思在國家大事上。如此也不難看出,封建社會的后宮等級制度是為皇權服務的工具而已。

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