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宋代女性如何穿戴抹胸(圖)

時間:2016-08-04來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  在中國古代文學作品中,可以找到很多關于抹胸的美好描述。如南唐后主李煜的《謝新恩》寫的“雙鬟不整云憔悴,淚沾紅抹胸”。那么,古代抹胸到底是什么樣的呢?南京市博物館收藏的一件宋代抹胸,讓我們有幸見到了一千年多年前的女士內衣。

  

宋代女性如何穿戴抹胸(圖)

  抹胸,相當于現代女性所用的文胸,只不過當時的抹胸做的比較寬大。通過兩根系帶,把上身大部分包裹起來。

  

  這件菱形朵花紋印花絹抹胸,出土于花山宋墓。2003年9月30日,南京高淳縣花山鄉在道路施工中,發現了一座南宋磚室墓。南京市博物館、高淳縣文保所相關人員迅速組成考古隊,對古墓進行了搶救性考古發掘。

  

  古墓打開后,墓室中的一具棺木成為大家關注的焦點。為了文物能得到很好的保護,考古人員把棺木運回了博物館,在博物館內進行清理。考古隊員小心翼翼地啟開棺木,發現棺木中滿是液體,令人驚奇的是,液體中有一具女尸,女尸完好無損,不但頭發、皮膚保存完好,關節也能活動,甚至肌肉還有彈性。人們不禁驚奇,這具古尸歷經千年,怎么還能保存得如此完好?

  

  據專家講,花山宋墓能保存到今天,很可能因為它地勢較高,相對來說,通風條件和溫濕度條件都較好,所以才會有這么多文物、棺材和尸體都能夠保存至今。

  

  在棺材的一角,考古隊員還發現了一個包袱,包袱里有成套的陪葬衣物,折疊整齊,它們跟墓主人一樣保存得完好無損。從這些陪葬物品來看,衣服的品質較高,墓的主人很可能是當地的一名富家女子。

  

  包袱里有鞋樣、襪子、枕頭、衛生帶等物品,都是目前較為少見的。尤其是同墓出土的一批絲綢服飾,樣式豐富,不僅在南京尚屬首次,在國內也非常罕見,對研究宋代女性服飾及宋代絲織工藝具有重要價值。

  

  今天,花山宋墓的衣物,大多被陳列在南京市博物館的《云裳簪影》展廳,有輕巧曼妙的紗衣,圖案精美的紗裙、性感艷麗的抹胸、花紋繁復的羅褲、清新雅致的花卉紋羅襪、小巧可愛的羅鞋,數量多達50多件,具有很高的研究與觀賞價值。

  

  在這些衣物中,最漂亮的,還要數一件宋代抹胸了。它呈長方形,長50厘米,寬116厘米,上部中間打有褶皺。兩邊系帶,帶長51厘米。抹胸為絹質,質地輕薄堅韌,表面光澤柔和,貼身穿著時既雅致又舒適。

  

  中國女性使用抹胸,由來已久,漢代稱為“抱腹”,魏晉時稱為“兩當”,唐代叫“訶子”,宋代,就成為“抹胸”,清代以后就是“肚兜”了。

  

  抹胸面料上印著菱形紋,菱紋內填以柿蒂小花色,紋樣個體不大,黑色,縱橫排列整齊,圖案清新雅致。抹胸的四邊以朵花紋印花絹貼邊,十分精致。抹胸上的圖案是用印花工藝印出來的,嫻熟的技術表明宋代絲綢印染工藝水平非常高超。

  

  宋代的絲織手工業較為發達,主要品種有錦、綾、紗、羅、綺、絹、緞、綢等等,當時的臨安、蘇州、揚州等已經是絲織業的主要產區。絲綢印染工藝的發展和提高,使得當時的服裝面料色彩豐富,裝飾華麗。女性使用的抹胸,一般用羅絹做成,上施彩色圖案,非常嫵媚亮麗。

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