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《甄嬛傳》中真實的后宮生活

時間:2016-08-11來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  我(文/陶夢清)很少看電視劇,也不愛看,但如今熱播的《甄嬛傳》卻很吸引我,劇本寫得精彩不說,單是那些復雜的清宮禮儀,就很讓人受教。因為工作關系,我接觸史料和專家較多,冷眼看來,《甄嬛傳》里的清宮規矩和禮儀,還是比較符合史實的。只可惜《甄嬛傳》過于強調戲劇性,通篇都是勾心斗角、人心險惡,反倒失了皇家生活的全貌,這一點也正是其大受詬病之處。

  

《甄嬛傳》中真實的后宮生活

  其實,戲劇終歸是戲劇,清宮真實的皇家生活,也只有在歷史遺存或是文獻中,可以管窺一斑。從清宮遺留下來的一些行樂圖中,可以約略知道些清宮如“甄嬛”一樣的宮中女性的真實生活。

  

  中國清代宮廷內的后宮女性,雖然養尊處優,表面上享受著榮華富貴,但在現實生活中,她們宛如囚禁籠中的金絲雀,其活動范圍非常狹小,一道厚厚的宮墻,把她們與紫禁城外熱鬧喧囂的繁華市景割斷開來。

  

  據史料記載,清代宮廷生活充滿了拘禁和約束,沒有自由的生活使得后宮女性精神極為壓抑,如何休閑娛樂,排解胸中的抑郁,就成為每一位宮中女性必須具備的生活修養。

  

  觀戲,是清宮女眷們主要的娛樂活動之一。清宮內務府下設升平署,掌理宮廷演戲的事務。今天,珍藏在中國國家圖書館善本特藏部的“昇平署畫冊”,就是升平署制作的名為《慶賞昇平》的清代彩繪戲曲扮相譜。畫冊中的臉譜,均由宮廷畫師按照舞臺上,每出戲里每個角色的正規扮像繪制而成。

  

  養寵物狗,也是宮中女性消遣的方式之一。清內務府下設內、外養狗處,共養了數百只血統純正的名犬。其中僅慈禧就養了數十只愛犬,端莊皇貴妃也養了九只。這些狗的用具都非常豪華,其尺寸、用料、樣式、圖案,一絲不茍,都精心制作而成。今天,北京故宮博物院遺留下來的這些式樣別致的狗衣,便是那時宮中妃嬪們為寵物狗穿戴的各種衣飾。

  

  從現藏于故宮博物院的《清宣宗行樂圖》中,可以看到兩位年幼的公主腳下不遠的地方,就跑著兩只漂亮的小叭狗。《道光帝喜溢秋庭圖》中,表現道光帝和后妃子女們共度家庭歡樂時光的情景中,也可以看到很多可愛小狗的身影。

  

  宮中女性除了這些消磨時間的娛樂項目,還有一項非常重要的休閑內容。據故宮博物院研究員苑洪琪介紹,宮廷女性日常起居都有固定的時間,每天早晨,晚輩都要去給長輩磕頭請安,除此之外的主要活動就是學習。清代晚期的慈禧喜歡寫字、畫畫、看書,她也要求她身邊的女眷、女官、宮女都要學習。

  

  從慈禧年輕時候的畫像中,也可以看到,在她靠著的茶幾上,就有一本翻開的書籍。由此可見,慈禧的休閑生活中,無時不有書的影子。

  

  現藏于故宮博物院的《福祿壽》軸,就是慈禧御筆朱書的,為紙本,縱129厘米,橫62厘米。畫幅上端為一方“慈禧太后之寶”的朱文正方印。畫面上的“福祿壽”三字,用朱筆書寫,書體與眾不同,用象形手法組成,仿佛一幅繪畫作品。在結構上,“福”和“祿”兩字借用同一偏旁,福祿之間又夾寫一個壽字,中間空白部分巧妙布局,畫成一個壽星拄著拐杖的樣子,顯得非常生動活潑。慈禧寫的這些大字,常常用來賞賜內外大臣,以示恩寵。

  

  學習之外,刺繡,做女紅,也是宮中女性常做的事情之一。雖然宮中女子每年的衣服,都由宮里來定制,但內衣、鞋襪等都要自己做。所以針線活,也是宮中女子生活中的重要休閑。今天,故宮的一個大庫房內,還存放著后宮女眷們做的滿滿一大箱子的鞋底和鞋梆子。

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