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樂毅是誰?樂毅伐齊國怎么回事?

時間:2018-03-12來源: 作者:

  樂毅(yuèyì),生卒年不詳,子姓,樂氏,名毅,字永霸。中山靈壽(今河北靈壽西北)人,戰國后期杰出的軍事家,魏將樂羊后裔,拜燕上將軍,受封昌國君,輔佐燕昭王振興燕國。公元前284年,他統帥燕國等五國聯軍攻打齊國,連下70余城,創造了中國古代戰爭史上以弱勝強的著名戰例,報了強齊伐燕之仇。后因受燕惠王猜忌,投奔趙國,被封于觀津,號為望諸君。

  

  周赧王元年(公元前314),力圖向外擴張的齊國,乘燕國內亂,出兵占領燕都。四年,燕昭王即位,廣招賢才,勵精圖治,欲報破國之恨。但齊為強國,燕無力單獨攻齊。燕昭王采納亞卿樂毅建議,利用齊、秦、趙三強爭奪宋國富庶之地的矛盾,定下誘齊滅宋、爭取與國、孤立齊國、“舉天下而圖之”(《戰國策·燕策二》)的攻齊方略。經蘇秦兩次入齊離間,齊湣王相繼西向攻秦,南下滅宋,并欲向中原擴展,加深了齊與各國的矛盾。燕昭王趁機派樂等四出聯絡,很快形成聯合攻齊的局面。

  

  三十一年,樂毅以燕上將軍職,佩趙國相印,率燕、秦、趙、韓、魏五國聯軍攻齊。齊湣王得知聯軍渡過河水(黃河),向濟水挺進,急命觸子為主將,達子為副將,率領齊軍全部主力迎擊聯軍于濟水西。齊軍苦于連年征戰而斗志消沉,暴虐的齊湣王以不戰即殺頭、掘祖墳相威逼,更使將士離心。聯軍發起猛攻,觸子下令退兵,只身乘車逃亡,聯軍乘勢進擊,殲滅齊軍主力。達子收集殘兵,退保國都臨淄(今山東淄博東北)。樂毅隨即遣還遠道參戰的秦、韓兩軍,派魏軍攻占原宋地,趙軍奪取河間(今河北獻縣東南),擬率燕軍直搗臨淄,一舉滅齊。

  

  謀士劇辛拘守燕軍不能獨力滅齊的成見,反對長驅深入,主張攻取齊國邊城而還。樂毅認為齊軍精銳已失,國內紛亂,燕弱齊強的形勢已發生變化,堅持率燕軍乘勝追擊。齊將達子請湣王犒賞將士,以激勵其死戰,反遭申斥,士氣更加低落。秦周(臨淄城西)一戰,齊軍再敗,達子戰死,燕軍攻入臨淄。湣王出逃至莒(今山東莒縣),后被以救齊為名的楚將淖齒所殺。燕昭王聞齊都已破,親至濟水慰勞燕軍,封樂毅為昌國君。

  

  為減少齊人敵對情緒,以利奪取全部齊地,樂毅嚴申軍紀,禁止擄掠,減輕齊民賦稅,并以官爵、封地籠絡齊吏,爭取人心。隨即分兵出擊:左軍渡膠水,攻取膠東、東萊(今山東半島東北部);前軍沿泰山山麓東至黃海,奪占瑯邪(今山東半島東南部);右軍沿河水、濟水間,進據阿(今山東陽谷東北)、鄄(今山東鄄城北);后軍沿北海(今山東淄博東北沿海一帶)攻占千乘(今山東高青東北);樂毅率中軍鎮守齊都,指揮各軍。燕軍勢如破竹,半年內攻克70余城。隨又集中兵力圍攻僅存的莒和即墨(今山東平度東南)二城,長期相持未下(見即墨之戰)。

  

  此戰,樂毅以多結與國的方略和連續進攻的作戰指導而取勝,齊國則過早集中主力與強大聯軍決戰,幾致國亡,為后世用兵留下了寶貴的經驗教訓。

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