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淺談中國姓氏的起源及演變

時間:2017-08-19來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  中國人在三皇五帝以前(距今約五千年),就有了姓。據傳說,姓的最早起源與原始民族的圖騰崇拜有關。氏族部落不但對圖騰奉若神明,禁止食、殺、冒犯,而且把它作為本氏族統一的族號。在原始部落中,圖騰、族名和祖先名常常是一致的,久而久之,圖騰的名稱就演變成同一氏族全體成員共有的標記——姓。

  

  姓的形成除與圖騰關系密切外,還與女性分不開。那時是母族社會,只知有母,不知有父。所以‘姓’是‘女’和‘生’組成,就說明最早的姓,是跟母親的姓。據考古學資料表明,西周銅器銘文中,可以明確考定的姓不到三十個,但大多數都從女旁,如:姜、姚、姒、姬、媧、婢、妊、妃、好、贏等等。不僅古姓多與‘女’字相關,就連‘姓’這個字本身也從女旁,這大概是母系氏族制度的一個特征性產物。

  

  姓氏在最早期,其‘姓’與‘氏’有著不同的意義。‘姓’如字面所示,是指女人生的子女,原義是同一個母親所生的子女就是同姓。隨著社會由母系發展成父系社會,姓則由隨母姓轉為隨父親。

  

  氏是從姓那兒派生出來。由于同一祖先的子孫繁衍增多,而開始分散居各處后,各個分支的子孫除了會保留姓以外,還往往以生地、居住地、封國、封地、官職等為自己取一個稱號作為標志,這就是‘氏’。在當時一個家族的姓是永恒的,而氏卻會時常變化。

  

  名字有很多奧秘,測字更是樂趣多多,感興趣的朋友可以百度搜索關注興熠嘉名館!

  

  夏、商、周的時候,人們有姓也有氏。‘姓’是從居住的村落,或者所屬的部族名稱而來。‘氏’是從君主所封的地、所賜的爵位、所任的官職,或者死后按照功績,追加的稱號而來。氏的產生,最大量、最頻繁的時代是周朝。周朝初年,為控制被征服的廣大地區,大規模地分封諸侯。而這些諸侯國的后人即以封國名為氏。另外,各諸侯國又以同樣的方式對國內的卿大夫進行分封,大夫的后人又以受封國的名稱為氏。以后,各種形式的氏的來源又不斷出現,并且氏的數量遠遠超過了姓的數量。但是只有貴族才有氏,貧賤者有名無氏,而同‘氏’的男女可以通婚,同‘姓’的男女卻不可以通婚。因此,姓用以區別婚姻,故有同姓、異姓、庶姓之說,氏用以區別貴賤。

  

  在春秋戰國宗法制度瓦解時,舊的氏族及姓氏制度也被清除殆盡。到了西漢時期,姓和氏的區別已經微乎其微。此后,中國的姓與氏逐漸合而為一,或言姓,或言氏,氏即姓,許多目前的姓氏便是由當時流傳至今。

  

  唐太宗的時候,有個吏部尚書高士廉,把民間的‘姓’記錄下來,寫成一本書《氏族志》,頒布天下,作為當時推舉賢能為官,或撮合婚姻的依據。中國舊時流行的《百家姓》是北宋年間寫的,里面一共收集了單姓408個,復姓30個,一共438個。發展到后來,據說有4000到6000個,但是實際應用的,只有1000個左右。其中,張、王、李、趙,四個大姓,歷史悠久,分布廣泛,而且都是皇帝賜姓。

  

  現代中國人的姓,大部分是從幾千年前代代相傳下來的。考其來歷,大致可分為以下幾種類別:

  

  1、古代的姓沿用至今。姓作為氏族公社時期氏族部落的標志符號而產生,其后人有的便直接承襲為氏。母權制氏族社會以母親為姓,所以那時許多姓都是女字旁。如:姬、姜、姒、姚等。

  

  2、周朝的諸侯國號或所封的邑演變而成。如我們所熟悉的春秋戰國時期的諸侯國:齊、魯、楚、衛、曹、胡、許等,皆成為今天常見姓。邑即采邑,是帝王及各諸侯國國君分予同姓或異姓卿大夫的封地。其后代或生活在這些采邑中的人有的便繼之為氏。如周武王時封司寇岔生采邑于蘇(今河北省臨漳縣西),岔生后代便姓蘇。

  

  3、以鄉、亭之名為姓氏。這類情況不多,今日常見姓有裴、陸、閻、郝、歐陽等。

  

  4、以居住地為姓氏。這類姓氏中,復姓較多,一般都帶邱、門、鄉、閭、里、野、官等字,表示不同環境的居住地點。

  

  5、以先人的字或名為姓氏。出自此條的姓氏很多,據統計有五六百個,其中復姓近200個。如周平王的庶子字林開,其后代以林姓傳世。宋戴公之子公子充石,字皇父,其孫以祖父字為氏,漢代時改皇父為皇甫。

  

  6、以先人的排行為姓氏。一家一族,按兄弟順序排行取姓,如老大曰伯或孟,老二曰仲,老三曰叔,老四曰季等。后代相沿為氏,表示在宗族中的順序。

  

  7、以官職為姓氏。如司徒、司馬、司空、司士、司寇等。一些以官職為姓的姓氏,單從字義上看,也可以分辨出來,如籍、諫、庫、倉、軍、廚等。

  

  8、以技藝、職業為姓氏。如巫、卜、陶、匠、屠等。

  

  9、古代少數民族融合到漢族中帶來的姓氏。古代少數民族與漢族融合,借用漢字單字為氏。看猛料請加小編微信號:niancaihong2。如拓跋氏改為元氏、叱盧氏改為祝、關爾佳氏改為關、鈕祜祿氏改為鈕等。

  

  10、以先人謚號為姓氏。

  

  11、因賜姓、避諱而改的姓氏。如朱明王朝賜以朱姓;漢文帝名劉恒,凡恒性因避諱改為常氏。晉朝帝王祖上有司馬師,天下師姓皆缺筆改為為帥氏。

  

  姓氏起源的形式很多,并且在不斷發展,同姓異源,或異姓同源等等,情況十分復雜。隨著歲月的流逝,也會不斷出現新的姓氏。如給孩子取名時,取男女雙方兩個單音姓合成復姓,又為姓氏‘家族’增添了新的成員。

  

  姓氏一直是代表中國傳統的宗族觀念的主要的外在表現形式,以一種血緣文化的特殊形式記錄了中華民族的形成,在中華民族文化的同化和國家統一上曾起過獨特的民族凝聚力的作用。

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