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從"羋月"看姓氏文化 《百家姓》里為何沒 "羋"?

時間:2015-12-02來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  羋月,這個戰國時期楚國的小公主隨著11月30日電視劇《羋月傳》的開播,蹦跳而來,她將成長為中國歷史上第一位太后——秦宣太后。先秦故事在影視作品中體現得較少,華商娛樂開辟“跟著羋月看先秦”欄目,讓我們一邊追劇,一邊了解先秦文化吧。

  

  有人說,鄭曉龍執導的《甄嬛傳》和《羋月傳》,是來普及生僻字的。可是不管戰國時期姓“羋”(讀音mǐ)的人有多牛,甚至像羋月當上了太后,可是現在,我們的身邊卻沒有羋姓的人了,羋姓到哪里去了?昨日,曾在央視《百家講壇》上解讀《百家姓》的著名學者錢文忠接受華商報記者采訪,他說,“羋”字先秦時期常見,當下卻成為生僻字,原因沒有文獻記載。能確認的是,《百家姓》中沒有“羋”。

  

  “羋月”可能不是真名由兵馬俑上殘字推測其名

  

  《羋月傳》中,羋月是楚國公主。于是,不少觀眾認為“羋”就是楚國的國姓。其實不盡然。錢文忠解讀:“‘羋’是公族,包括國君、貴族等的姓。準確來說,‘羋’姓起源于楚國。戰國時期常見,演變到現在成為罕見字。其間‘羋’姓有改成‘米’、‘弭’等,有傳言北宋著名畫家米芾,本姓羋,后改為同音字米。”人們為何改姓?錢文忠表示:“有的是亡國之后避禍改姓,有的是為了使用方便,文獻中無從考證。”

  

  電視劇《羋月傳》中,羋月被楚王指月為名。羋月原型為秦宣太后羋八子,不過,羋八字并不能確定名字為“月”,秦王的第一妻子稱王后,第二妻子稱夫人,其余妻子的名號順序是美人、良人、八子、七子、長使、少使等。由此看來,“羋八子”是姓加上身份稱呼。而“羋月”二字是根據兵馬俑上的殘存“羋月”和阿房宮筒瓦上秦惠文王妃子“羋月”的合體陶文而來。人們推測羋八子名叫羋月。

  

  “羋”字另一讀音像羊叫?學者稱方言可能性大

  

  《羋月傳》開篇出現了屈原,他是楚國重臣,由《潛伏》中扮演李涯的祖峰出演。其實,屈原也姓“羋”,文獻資料顯示,屈原羋姓屈氏,名平,字原,是楚武王熊通之子屈瑕的后代。為什么人們不稱他“羋原”呢?錢文忠表示,先秦時期姓氏有別,姓是有血緣關系的整個部族的共同稱號,氏是某個支系的稱號。男子稱氏,女子稱姓。

  

  對于“羋”字,《說文解字》將其解釋為“羊鳴也”。也有研究語言的學者指出,“羋”當姓的時候讀mǐ,其他時候讀“咩”(miē,羊叫的聲音)。不過,錢文忠認為這種說法在學術上并沒有足夠的依據,“古音怎么讀‘羋’字,我們并不知道。如果說‘羋’讀‘咩’,個人覺得方言可能性大。”

  

  mǐ姓人是不是楚國后代?“您貴姓”體現家族文化

  

  網絡上,已有網友呼吁重修“羋氏族譜”,呼吁讀音為mǐ姓的網友,包括米、弭等姓尋根溯源,看看自己是不是楚國的后代,是不是羋月的后人。錢文忠認為:“這是姓氏文化所代表的家族文化熱的一個縮影。近幾年,全國范圍內興起重修族譜熱,人們對傳統文化的認識發生了改變,回歸傳統意愿得到體現后,開始走向家族文化。”

  

  中國人在初次見面時,習慣問“您貴姓”。錢文忠說,在春秋戰國時期,獲知一個人的姓,就知道他的來歷、血脈所在。這代表家族榮譽。“因為社會發展,中國的家族制度曾經陷入徹底消失的境地。當下,家族文化再次興起,其實代表了每個人血脈中的民族文化因子正被喚醒。”

  

  《羋月傳》邊看邊聊

  

  滑胎新神器“淡竹葉”來了

  

  看過《甄嬛傳》,大家以為麝香是宮斗滑胎最猛的一味藥,殊不知《羋月傳》里“淡竹葉(碎骨子)”前來加盟,王后利用淡竹葉,差點害小羋月無法出世。淡竹葉到底能不能讓孕婦流產?華商報記者采訪了西安市中醫醫院針灸科主任安軍明,他表示:“淡竹葉導致流產的說法,我在多年的從醫生涯中還真沒遇到過。”他補充:“淡竹葉有清熱瀉火、除煩、利尿通淋的功效,主要針對小便赤黃、口舌生瘡,起不到流產的作用。”

  

  觀眾發現《羋月傳》和《甄嬛傳》不得不說的聯系,難怪《甄嬛傳》里槿汐姑姑對嬛嬛拼死付出,搞了半天,在《羋月傳》里是母女啊。觀眾齊喊“華妃娘娘”命苦,《甄嬛傳》里被麝香害得無法生子,這《羋月傳》里變身莒姬又遭淡竹葉之禍,依然無法生育!

  

  《羋月傳》開播第一天,大家等著看孫儷,卻意外等來了四歲小羋月的扮演者劉楚恬,她太萌、太漂亮了,被贊“傾城傾國”,這個小美人是來自福建的六歲小美女,而且人家已經參演了好幾部影視劇,據說追劇的人心中燃起了對女兒無限的渴望。

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