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趣說古人取名 宋代出現五行八字

時間:2014-11-15來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  過去,孩子入學啟蒙時,都會起一個正式名字,即所謂“學名”。名字,在現代人看來是一個詞兒,一個意思。但在中國古代,“名”和“字”卻是兩個不同的概念。名就是名,字就是字。有“名”還得有“字”,是古代有身份者的“標配”。那么,古人是如何起名字的?古人在起名時又是如何選“字”的?

  

  先秦時期孩子3個月時由“父名之”

  

  《左傳》記載申繻曾提出取名選字“五原則”

  

  古人怎么想到起名字的?東漢文字學家許慎認為,名字最初是因夜晚相遇、辨識需要而產生的,故《說文解字》稱,“名,自命也,從口從夕。夕者冥也,冥不相見,故以口自名。”

  

  古代一般在孩子3個月大的時候,由父親取名,此即《儀禮·喪服》中所謂“故子生三月,則父名之。”至于取“字”,則在20歲行成人禮(冠禮)時進行。需要注意的是,后世就不這么講究了,有時候先起個“小名”或是“奶名”,六七歲入學起蒙時才取正式名字。

  

  取名的關鍵是選好字,上古時期比較簡單,如殷王固定用天干入名。到先秦時期,起名的講究開始多了起來。取名大師、魯國大夫申繻曾提出取名選字“五原則”:“有信,有義,有象,有假,有類。”這是《左傳·桓公六年》中所記,那時桓公的太子出生,便咨詢申繻怎么給太子取名,申繻遂說了這番話。申繻的具體解釋是:“以名生為信,以德命為義,以類命為象,取于物為假,取于父為類”。在具體選字時,申繻強調要“不以國,不以官,不以山川,不以隱疾,不以畜牲,不以器幣。”

  

  孔子名“丘”,就是其父按“以類命為象”的原則所取的。孔子生下后被發現頭頂特別,是凹下去的,即所謂“圩頂”,故取名“丘”。而孔子有了兒子后,恰好魯昭公賜他一條鯉魚,他遂給兒子取名“鯉”,這又是依“取于物為假”之原則。

  

  申繻的取名原則反映了先秦時期的起名風俗,其核心是“避諱”。中國封建時代姓名避諱風氣大流行,最早正是始于先秦。

  

  漢代取名流行用“單字”

  

  《春秋公羊傳·哀公十三年》記載“二名非禮也”

  

  與先秦相比,漢代的取名風尚又有了不小的變化。尊老、稱謂、身份、德行一類敬謙美辭成為漢人取字時的首選,在先秦人常用的伯、仲、叔、季四字基礎上,又增加了元、長、次、幼、少、公、翁、君、臣、侯、賓、士、民、郎等字。如《鹽鐵論》執筆人桓寬,字“次公”;漢武帝時位列九卿的朱買臣,字“翁子”。

  

  漢代最鮮明的取名特征是,從皇室到普通老百姓都以單字取名,如漢高祖劉邦、漢惠帝劉盈、漢文帝劉恒。在東西兩漢24位有廟號的皇帝中,僅漢昭帝劉弗陵取的是雙字名,在登基后出于避諱的考慮,也除去“陵”字改成了單字“弗”。取單字名之風對后世影響深遠,如唐代,21位帝王中,僅有太宗李世民、玄宗李隆基為雙字名。南宋及以前的皇帝大多數也是單字名,一直到明清時期單字名才被冷落,在明清兩朝28位皇帝中,只有明成祖朱棣是單字名。

  

  王莽篡漢建新后,視單字名為古禮。在王莽“崇古”的影響下,取單字名進一步流行。為何漢代喜歡單字名?《春秋公羊傳·哀公十三年》有這樣一種說法:“晉魏多帥師侵衛,此晉魏曼多也。曷為謂之晉魏多?譏二名,二名非禮也。”晉大夫魏曼多帥軍隊進攻衛國,人們不叫他全名,而稱“魏多”,是諷刺他取雙字名,認為雙字名不合禮數。

  

  就“二名非禮”說,明末清初大學問家顧炎武考證,《春秋公羊傳》中錯誤地理解了“二名”的意思,應是一人有兩名不合禮數,而非取二字名。

  

  魏晉南北朝時期取名青睞“之”字

  

  為《三國志》作注的南朝宋人叫斐松之

  

  北魏著名道士取名寇謙之

  

  魏晉南北朝時期,取二字名風氣逐漸抬頭,取名出現兩大特點,一是助詞“之”受寵,名字帶“之”成時尚;二是父子、長幼之間用字不再避諱,名字中出現同字現象。比如王羲之、王獻之,父子倆的名字中都有“之”字。www.xz877.com(百家姓

  

  當時,“之”字特別受青睞,地位高者或權力大者,名字里往往都帶“之”字,如為《三國志》作注的南朝宋人斐松之、北魏著名道士寇謙之。當時皇族對“之”字也情有獨鐘,如晉宣帝的弟弟、安平獻王叫司馬孚之,兒子、汝南王叫司馬亮之,后代還有司馬景之、司馬曇之……

  

  “之”字入名,在魏晉時期還是一種是否入教的標志。如何辨別入教者和非入教者,知道對方與自己同道?區別就在一個“之”字。后來“五斗米道”首領之一的孫恩作亂,許多名中含“之”的人士受到牽連,不少人被殺,便證明了這一推斷。當然,唐宋以后人名中再用“之”字則與宗教無關,純屬于一種喜好。魏晉南北朝時期,人們取名字時僅次于“之”字的,還有一個“僧”字。如南朝梁有一名將領叫王僧辯,梁武帝的醫師叫姚僧垣……

  

  宋代出現“五行”“八字”配合起名

  

  朱元璋嫡孫惠帝命里缺“火”取名朱允炆

  

  到唐宋時期,予、臣、汝、友一類稱謂字以及可、如、斯、也等一類語助字,開始受到青睞。

  

  宋人取名還出現一種復古傾向。漢代的尊老字,如“老、叟、翁”等常入名中,如《東京夢華錄》的作者叫孟元老;《鶴山集》的作者叫魏了翁。

  

  在宋代及以后,取名時人為設置的限制明顯多了起來。除了考慮傳統的避諱,取名時還要講陰陽五行、生辰八字、生肖屬相、五格剖象、八卦六爻等等。這其中,以“生辰八字”與“陰陽五行”配合入名最為流行。所謂“八字”又叫“四柱”,即一個人的出生年、月、日、時和干支組成的年柱、月柱、日柱、時柱,四柱加起來剛好是8個字。而“五行”則由金、木、水、火、土5個字組成,代表不同性質的物質。

  

  依“八字”原理,命里缺啥取名時就補啥。如命里缺“火”,就會取帶“火”的字。明太祖朱元璋的接班人、惠帝名“允炆”,就是因其命里欠火,取名時才找一個帶火的“炆”字。這顯然是一種迷信,惠帝恰恰是因為“一把火”而丟了性命——在“靖難”中,于宮中放火自焚。

  

  宋代取名的另一大變化是“字輩取名制”開始流行。中國譜系最完整的孔氏族譜,就是從北宋元豐年間開始編修的。

  

  字輩取名也叫“世代排名”。在宋以前,雖有以字輩取名的現象,但并不普遍。在宋以后,這一取名方法便成為古人取名的主要手段,凡同宗同輩者,皆用一個固定的字入名。

  

  到了明代,字輩取名制普遍流行。明惠帝朱允炆名中的“允”字,便是輩分字。當年朱元璋給自己的兒子各20字輩分,太子一支是:“允文遵祖訓,欽武大君勝,順道宜逢吉,師良善用晟。”

  

  元代流行“數字”入名

  

  “鶯鶯”“圓圓”等重字雙名

  

  被視為身份低賤者用名

  

  在所有朝代中,數字名在元代最為流行。元末起義軍首領之一的張士誠,原名“九四”,“士誠”是一讀書人獻給他的。據說此名其實是罵他的,語出《孟子》:“士,誠小人也”,另外斷句就是,“士誠,小人也”,暗譏張士誠不學無術。

  

  這種數字取名風俗,實與朝廷政策有關。在元代,漢人庶民無職者,不許取名,只能用排行、父母年齡等來稱呼,這大概是古代姓名管控的特例。

  

  名字其實就是一個人的代號,但當名字里加入動機、情感、寄托后,便變得不再簡單。名字起的好,可以影響人的一生,反之則為名所累。南宋初年,有個叫錢唐休的人就被自己的名字害得不淺。據莊綽《雞肋篇》記載,當時南宋剛定都又名錢塘的臨安(今杭州),會稽有個叫錢唐休的人頗有聲望,被人舉薦給宰相趙鼎,但高宗堅持不用,認為名字不吉利:“錢唐遂休乎?”

  

  唐宋以后,人們起名盡量考慮穩當、平安,忌與帝王、壞人等重名,不用兇字、壞字。北宋徽宗時,江西平樂縣有個叫“孫權”的人,與三國吳主同名,因此被舉報圖謀不軌,“寓意僭竊”。

  

  不產生歧義也是古人取名時要注意的。《明皇泳化類編》記載,有個學子名叫孫曰恭,參加永樂年甲辰廷試獲第一名。朱棣看到名字后不樂,覺得“曰”、“恭”二字加起來似“暴”字,硬把狀元給了第二名邢寬,孫曰恭變成了榜眼。

  

  像現代流行的重字名、姓名同字同音,也是古人所忌諱的。名字重字又叫“雙名”,在古人眼里是身份低賤者用名,一般侍妾、青樓女子多雙名,如元稹妾名“鶯鶯”、秦淮名妓“陳圓圓”。女子雙名讀起來,讓男人有一種愉悅感,有身份的人,特別是男人不取重字名。

  

  除了避用不雅字,古人取名時還很在意字的聲調,取“雙聲疊韻”字入名,這樣讀起來音節響亮,音韻啞仄的字,寓意再好,結構再美,也盡量不用。

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