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第十二計 順手牽羊

時間:2010-10-13來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  順手就牽了羊。比喻不費勁,乘機便得到的。現多指乘機拿走人家東西的偷竊行為。

  

  【原典】

  

  微隙在所必乘①;微利在所必得。少陰,少陽②。

  

  【注釋】

  

  ①微隙在所必乘:微隙,微小的空隙,指敵方的某些漏洞、疏忽。

  

  ②少陰,少陽:少陰,此指敵方小的疏漏,少陽,指我方小的得利。此句意為我方要善于捕捉時機,伺隙搗虛,變敵方小的疏漏而為我方小的得利。

  

  【按語】

  

  大軍動處,其隙甚多,乘間取利,不必以勝。勝固可用,敗亦可用。

  

  【故事:弦高獻牛退秦軍】

  

  春秋時,秦將孟明視率領大軍準備偷襲鄭國,而鄭國對此毫無覺察。鄭國有一個商人,名叫弦高,善于隨機應變。他在販牛的路上正好遇到了浩浩蕩蕩的秦軍,知道情況非常嚴重,便急中生智,一邊派人飛馳回國報信,一邊把自己所帶的幾頭牛和千張牛皮獻給秦將孟明視,用警告的口氣說:“我們小小的鄭國夾在幾個大國之間,日夜懷著恐懼之心,不敢放心睡大覺。今日鄭國的國君聽說將軍前來,特奉一點薄禮,以示心意。”孟明視聽罷大吃一驚,認為鄭國早有防備,按原計劃偷襲不成了,便移師攻打滑地,后來在引兵回國途中,遭到晉國軍隊的伏擊,全軍覆滅。

  

  在這里,弦高因偶然的機會同前去偷襲鄭國的秦軍相遇,這時他假借鄭國國君之名,把自己所販的牛和牛皮獻給秦軍,暗示鄭國早有防備,使秦軍移師他處。弦高的本來目的是販牛,卻順勢以牛為禮物,替鄭國解了大圍。弦高順手所牽之“羊”實在不小,但終歸是順勢而成之事。

  

  【故事:苻堅兵敗淝水】

  

  晉朝時,北方的前秦日益強大起來,欲迅速滅亡東晉司馬氏政權,一統天下。前秦國君苻堅率軍90萬,進侵東晉邊境。公元383年,晉秦兩國軍隊隔淝水相持。晉軍將領謝石認為晉軍目前士氣高昂,宜與秦軍速戰速決。但是,淝水阻隔,如何進攻?部將謝瑣進言說:“苻堅驕橫恣肆,目空一切,今可寫一封信激他,要秦軍暫退一步,使我軍渡過淝水后與之決戰。信中還要說明,如果他不愿讓出一塊交戰地盤,就說明他害怕晉軍,甘拜下風了。我們事先在秦中軍布下探子。如此這樣,定能大獲全勝。”謝石認為這是好計,于是立即修書一封,派人送到秦軍的營中。苻堅看到謝石的信,認為謝石犯了兵家大忌。他對手下人說:“晉軍要求渡河而戰,我們就依他所請,讓出一箭之地。待到晉軍半渡時,我們以騎兵沖殺他們,讓晉軍成為水中之鬼!”苻堅復信給謝石,表示同意讓出交戰場地。

  

  第二天大早,晉軍首先把人馬部署在淝水岸邊,等待渡河。對岸的秦軍士卒都是強征入伍的,十分厭戰,不愿為苻堅賣命。這時,秦王苻堅發出了后撤的命令,正投合他們的心意,恨不能多長兩條腿,跑得更快些。撤退中的秦軍擁擠成團,人、馬、車互相沖撞,罵聲、喊聲、埋怨聲匯成一片。混入秦軍的晉國探子見時機已到,便高聲喊道:“秦軍敗了!晉軍殺過河來了!快跑啊!”本來秦軍就人心惶惶,聽到這一喊,頓時驚慌失措,一片混亂。苻堅幾次下令停止退卻,但兵退如山倒,怎能阻止得住。晉軍見秦軍大敗,乘機搶渡淝水,拼殺過來。秦軍全線潰敗,苻堅領兵倉皇逃走。

  

  在淝水之戰中,晉軍運用順手牽羊之計,取得了以少勝多的奇效。秦軍后撤本來無損于它的實力,但晉軍的探子在其中乘機煽風點火,謠傳“秦軍敗了”,而秦軍士兵不知底細,造成一退不可收拾的局面。

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