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第十三計 打草驚蛇

時間:2010-10-13來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  打動草驚動了藏在草里的蛇。后用以指做事不周密,行動不謹慎,而使對方有所覺察。

  

  【原典】

  

  疑以叩實①,察而后動;復者,陰之媒也②。

  

  【注釋】

  

  ①疑以叩實:叩,問,查究。意為發現了疑點就應當考實查究清楚。

  

  ②復者,陰之媒也:復者,反復去做,即反復去叩實而后動。陰,此指某些隱藏著的、暫時尚不明顯或未暴露的事物、情況。媒,媒介。句意為反復叩實查究,而后采取相應的行動,實際是發現隱藏之敵的重要手段。

  

  【按語】

  

  敵力不露,陰謀深沉,未可輕進,應遍探其鋒。兵書云:“軍旁有險阻、潢井、葭葦、山林、翳薈者,必謹復索之,此伏奸所藏也。”

  

  【故事:商臣故作無禮探真情】

  

  楚成王是一個優柔寡斷的人。他立商臣為太子之后,又覺得有些不妥,想立職為太子,廢黜太子商臣。

  

  太子商臣聽說了這個消息,但不知傳聞是否確實。于是,商臣向他的老師潘崇問計。潘崇對他說:“你設宴招待江羋(音mì),要故意流露出對她不尊敬的神態。”

  

  商臣依計行事。江羋是楚成王的妹妹,貴不可言,人們見了她都畢恭畢敬,唯恐有閃失。但是,在這次宴會上,商臣的種種傲慢舉動使她十分不快。江羋在離席時向商臣罵道:“怪不得成王要廢掉你,原來你是一個不爭氣的

  

  東西!”

  

  商臣聽到江羋的話,證實了楚成王要廢掉自己的消息確實無疑。便策劃了一次宮廷政變,逼楚成王自殺,奪取了王位。

  

  在這里,商臣故意舉止無禮相當于“打草”,所驚之“蛇”則是盛怒之下泄露機密的江舉。

  

  【故事:徐庶以馬試劉備】

  

  徐庶是東漢末年有名的謀士。他聽說劉備是一個為人寬厚仁慈的賢明之主,很想投靠他。但不知劉備是否像人們所說的那樣。于是,徐庶想試探一下劉備的虛實。

  

  一天,徐庶見劉備專心致志地欣賞坐下的戰馬,便上前對劉備說:“我以前學過一點相馬術,讓我來看看您的馬。”劉備叫人把戰馬繞徐庶轉了幾圈,徐庶突然故作驚訝他說:“主公的馬雖是一匹好馬,但終究要傷害一人。主公可以先把這匹馬送給您所痛恨的人,等傷害他之后,您再騎它就平安無事了。”

  

  劉備一聽這話,很不高興他說:“我希望先生告訴我做善事的道理,不要教我害人的辦法。”徐庶在旁哈哈大笑:“主公,得罪了!我一直聽人說主公仁德,今日特用這番話試探您,果然名不虛傳。”

  

  從此,徐庶盡心輔佐劉備,以后又為劉備推薦了曠世之才諸葛亮。

  

  徐庶采用試探手法,誘使劉備暴露其真實品性,這是“打草驚蛇”的策略。

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