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第十四計 借尸還魂

時間:2010-10-13來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  迷信人認為人死后靈魂可附著于別人的尸體而復活。后用以比喻已經死亡或沒落的事物,又假托別的名義或以另一種形式重新出現。

  

  【原典】

  

  有用者,不可借①;不能用者,求借②。借不能用者而用之,匪我求童蒙,童蒙求我③。

  

  【注釋】

  

  ①有用者,不可借;意為世間許多看上去很有用處的東西,往往不容易去駕馭而為已用。

  

  ②不能用者,求借:此句意與①句相對言之。即有些看上去無什用途的東西,往往有時我還可以借助它而為己發揮作用。猶如我欲“還魂”還必得借助看似無用的“尸體”的道理。此言兵法,是說兵家要善于抓住一切機會,甚至是看去無什用處的東西,努力爭取主動,壯大自己,即時利用而轉不利為有利,乃至轉敗為勝。

  

  ③匪我求童蒙,童蒙求我:語出《易經.蒙》卦。蒙,卦名。本紛是異卦相疊(下坎上艮)。本卦上卦為艮為山,下卦為坎為水為險。山下有險,草木叢生,故說“蒙”。這是蒙卦卦象。這里“童蒙”是指幼稚無知、求師教誨的兒童。此句意為不是我求助于愚昧之人,而是愚昧之人有求于我了。

  

  【按語】

  

  換代之際,紛立亡國之后者,固借尸還境之意也。凡—切寄兵權于人,而代其攻寧者,皆此用也。

  

  【故事:小題大作以示仁德】

  

  統治者為了收買人心,鞏固統治地位,經常利用小題來做大文章,其實這是借尸還魂謀略的體現。

  

  商湯在郊外看見一個獵人,四面張網,還向天禱告說:“從天上落下的,從地上生出來的,從東西南北過來的,都落入我的網里吧!”商湯勸告獵人說:“這樣做會把禽獸趕盡殺絕,只有桀這樣的暴君才會這么干!”于是讓獵人收起三面的網,只留下一面。天下人知道這件事都說:“商湯對禽獸如此善待,何況是人呢!”于是,人們都紛紛投靠商湯。

  

  周文王派人挖池,忽然挖出一具骷髏。文王知道后,命令將骷髏安葬。手下人說:“這是一具無主之尸,何必安葬?”文王說:“擁有天下的人就是天下之主,擁有一國之人就是一國之主。現在難道我不是他的主人嗎?”于是讓人給骷髏穿上衣服,放進棺材,擇地埋葬了。聽說這件事的人都感動他說:“文王真是一個賢明的君主啊!連死人的尸骨都得到他的恩澤,還用說活人嗎?”

  

  一次,越王勾踐率領軍隊在行軍途中遇到一只大青蛙。這只青蛙的眼睛特別大,肚子非常鼓。勾踐靈機一動,站在青蛙面前,滿臉肅然地敬了一個禮。部下問其故,勾踐說;“我看這只青蛙很像一個勇猛的戰士,所以十分敬重它。”這件事很快在軍中傳開,士兵們說:“我們受大王教化多年,難道連一只青蛙都不如嗎?”于是個個抱定必死的決心,在戰場上奮勇拼殺,把吳軍殺得落花流水。

  

  【故事:埋石人韓劉舉義旗】

  

  元朝末年,深受民眾信仰的白蓮教廣為流行。為了順利地組織起義,白 蓮教領袖韓山童、劉福通采用借尸還魂的計謀來發動民眾。

  

  當時,元朝征發了20萬民工正在修整黃河。韓劉了解到黃陵崗這個地方 是挖河道的必經之處。于是,他們偷偷鑿了一個獨眼石人,并把“莫道石人 一只眼,此物一出天下反”這14個字刻在其背后,然后把石人埋在黃陵崗地下。

  

  同時,他們把這兩句話當成歌謠,教給白蓮教徒,并有意在民工中傳唱。 歌謠“天下反”這3個字,集中表達了深受壓迫的廣大民眾要求推翻元朝黑 暗統治的強烈愿望,因而在民工中流傳甚廣。

  

  不久,民工們在黃陵崗挖出了那個獨眼石人,因其背后的字與傳唱的歌 謠驚人的相似,頓時引起哄動。大家信服他說:“歌謠靈驗極了,看來要天 下大亂了!”這樣,韓山童、劉福通順利地聚集3000多人,揭開了反對元朝 統治大起義的序幕。

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