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第二十二計 關門捉賊

時間:2010-10-13來源:歷史故事網 作者:

  關起門來捉進入屋內的盜賊。

  

  【原典】

  

  小敵困之①。剝,不利有攸往②。

  

  【注釋】

  

  ①小敵困之:對弱小或者數量較少的敵人,要設法去困圍(或者說殲滅)他。

  

  ②剝,不利有攸往:語出《易經.剝》卦。剝,卦名。本卦異卦相疊(坤下艮上),上卦為艮為山,下卦為坤為地。意即廣闊無邊的大地在吞沒山,故外名日“剝”。“剝”,落的意思。卦辭:“剝,不利有彼往”意為:剝卦說,有所往則不利。

  

  此計引此卦辭,是說對小股敵人要即時圍困消滅,而不利于去急追或者遠襲。

  

  【按語】

  

  捉賊而必關門,非恐其逸也,恐其逸而為他人所得也;且逸者不可復追,恐其誘也。賊署,奇兵也,游兵也,所以勞我者也。吳子曰:“今使一死賊,伏于礦野,千人追之,莫不梟視狼顧。何者?恐其暴起而害己也。是以—人投命,足懼千夫。”追賊者,賊有脫逃之機,勢必死斗;若斷其去路,則成擒矣。故小敵必困之,不能,則放之可也。

  

  【故事:黃巢回師長安城】

  

  880年,黃巢率領起義軍攻下東都洛陽,唐朝京城長安危在旦夕。唐值宗帶著文武大臣溜出長安向陜西興元逃去,起義軍很快占領長安。

  

  黃巢進入長安后立即做了大齊皇帝,大享宮廷快樂和安逸生活,沒有對唐僖宗及其勢力進行及時追擊,使唐僖宗逃到成都后得到了喘息和休整的機會。唐僖宗訓練士卒,調集軍隊,準備反攻。第二年,唐軍在鳳翔一戰大獲全勝。

  

  唐軍被勝利沖昏了頭腦,急欲奪功。黃巢根據當時的軍事形勢,制定了以退為進、關門捉賊的軍事策略。五月初六那天,黃巢率領起義軍突然退出長安,露宿于霸上。唐軍殺入長安,見城內無一個起義軍,意志松懈下來,大肆搶劫財物,強奸婦女,把長安城弄得烏煙瘴氣。起義軍趁此機會迅速回師長安,把長安城圍得水泄不通。唐軍官兵每個都金銀財物滿袋,哪有心思打仗,而起義軍精神飽滿,殺得唐軍尸橫遍地。

  

  長安城又回到黃巢手中。

  

  【故事:平型關大捷】

  

  1937年9月25日晨,日本板垣第五師團的第二十一旅團沿著公路,徑直向平型關撲來。

  

  坐在一輛吉普車上的中村旅團長不時地用望遠鏡觀察公路兩旁的山丘,他向副官問道:“前面有國民黨的軍隊嗎?”

  

  “報告旅團長,”副官答道,“他們早就逃跑了。”

  

  “嘿嘿!”中村得意他說,“板垣師團長講過,中國人是沒有戰斗力的。”他回頭看看他的部隊,又命令道:“傳我的命令,加快行軍速度。”

  

  日軍哪里知道,在平型關的山丘后面,埋伏著八路軍一一五師。一一五師借這里的地形地勢,布置了口袋陣。日軍從口袋口進入,南邊有我們的六八七團,北邊有六八六團,獨立團和騎兵營還在前面牽制敵軍。

  

  當中村的二十一旅團進入口袋時,獨立團把袋口扎緊,我軍便來個關門捉賊。

  

  當日軍二十一旅團完全進入八路軍一一五師的包圍圈以后,師長立即下達了總攻命令。“啪,啪,啪!”三顆紅色信號彈升上天空。

  

  正在行進中的中村旅團長突然發現了天空中的信號彈,還未反應過來是怎么回事,就聽見公路兩旁的山丘上,機槍、步槍和手榴彈一起響了起來。戰斗結束后,林彪和聶榮臻來到公路上,只見到處都是敵人正在燃燒的汽車,遍地都是日軍的尸體。

  

  平型關大捷,殲滅日軍共3000余人,炸毀汽車100多輛。八路軍首戰平型關便取得了重大勝利,打擊了日軍囂張的氣焰,振奮了中國人民的抗戰士氣。從謀略學來說,平型關大捷得益于關門捉賊之計。

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